Essay on Analysis of Beethoven Symphony 3 and Mozart Symphony 40

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Beethoven Symphony No. 3 and Mozart Symphony 40 Forms

Sonata form is one of the more popular forms of music that is found in a variety of different works including symphonies, concertos, and sonatas. Sonata form features three distinct sections: the exposition, development, and recapitulation. Mozart was one of the early composers of this form of music. I will examine the clear distinctions between each section and how he does not stray from the typical form. In later years the form would change to become more fluent and focused on the growth and expansion of the piece. This progression of change was led by the works of Beethoven and the changes can be clearly seen in his grandiose works. By comparing the first movement of Symphony
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The violins have the chromatic primary theme at the very beginning of the piece. The beginning of the bridge is in ms. 21, since the melody is changed slightly to modulate to the key of B-flat major. The bridge ends at ms. 42. The exposition of the Beethoven piece is quite the contrast from what we see in the Symphony no. 40. His smaller sections are much less defined and lead scholars to disagree on exactly where the themes are located in the exposition. In fact, Robert P. Morgan, in his article entitled “Coda as Culmination” (Music Theory and the Exploration of the Past, pg 360) argues that
From a strictly conventional point of view, there is no theme, that is, no fixed melodic unit representing a stable, repeatable whole. When the opening material returns, it is always fundamentally transformed (except for the repeat of the exposition), both its integrity and functional role within the sonata form thereby compromised. This is a new kind of Beethovenian opening, inherently developmental from the start.
William Drabkin wrote an article, “Beethoven's Understanding of 'Sonata Form': The Evidence of the Sketchbooks”, uses Beethoven's sketchbooks to try to understand his thought process when writing his works in sonata form. Beethoven is primarily dedicated to the development and expansion of his works as well as the continuity throughout the piece. Sketchbooks of his include themes used in his works, showing that he understood sonata form. However,