Essay on Anatomy And Physiology Study Guide

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Study Guide

1.Define Anatomy & Physiology
Anatomy: Is the science of body structures and the relationships among structures.
Physiology: is the science of body functions, that is how they work.
2. Levels of Structural Organization
Chemical: Composed of all Atoms and Molecules essential for maintaining life.
Cellular: Consists of cells, the basic structural and functional units of an organism and the smallest living units in the human body.
Tissue: Formed by tissues, groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function.
Organ: Consists of organs, structures composed of two ore more different types of tissues, having specific functions and usually having recognizable shapes.
System: Formed by systems; related organs that have common function.
Organismal: The systems together constitute an organism, a total living individual.
3. Cell: is basic living structural and functional unit of the body.
4. Necessary Life Functions
5. Survival needs
Atmosphere Pressure ECT DON’T HAVE THESE NOTES
6. Anatomical Position
Standing straight
Head and eyes facing forward
Arms are at sides with palms facing forward
Feet flat on the floor and direct forward

7. Know Anatomical Regions & Correct Anatomical terms

8. Understand Directional Terms
Superior: Toward the head or the upper part of a structure; generally refers to structures in the trunk(torso).
Inferior: Away from the head or the lower part of a structure; generally refers to structures in the trunk.
Anterior: Nearer to or at the front surface of the body in the prone position, the body lies anterior side down; in the supine position, the body lies anterior side up.
Posterior: Nearer to or at the back of the body
Medial: Nearer the midline of the body. The midline is an imaginary vertical line the divided the body into equal left and right sides.
Lateral: Farther from the midline of the body
Intermediate: Between two structures
Ipsilateral: On the same side of the body as another structure
Contralateral: On the opposite side of the body from another structure.
Proximal: Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the origination of a structure.
Distal: Farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure.
Superficial: Toward or on the surface of the body
Deep: Away from the Surface of the body

9. Planes of the Body
Midsagittal:Line in the middle
Parasagittal: line closer to one side of the body
Frontal: side view: middle line ;cuts body anterior, posterior
Transverse: cuts at chest line
Oblique: on an angle

10. Difference between Chemical and Physical changes to matter.
Physical: Water turning into ice.
Chemical: Rust on a Bike.

11. Different Types of Energy
Kinetic: Actually performing work
Potential: Stored Four Forms
Chemical: stored in bonds of chemical substance * Released when bonds are broken.
Electrical: Results from movement of changed Particles.
Mechanical: Directly involved in doing matter
Radiant: travels I waves ; electromagnetic spectrum
i. x-rays ii. Infrared iii. light iv. Radio
v. Ultraviolet

Chapter 2
1. Four Major Elements in the body
Hydrogen (H) Makes up 96% of the body

2. Atomic Structure
1) Subatomic Particles
a) Protons: (+) have mass (weight) Located in Nucleus
b) Neutrons: No charge , have mass (weight) Located in Nucleus
c) Electron: (-) no mass (weight) orbiting around Nucleus

3. Atomic Number: # of protons that an atom contains.

4. Isotope
a) Different # of neutrons, different atomic weight.
b) Same# of protons and electrons as a regular atom of an element, so chemical properties are the same.
c) Lighter it weights the more stable the isotope.
d) Heavier isotopes decompose to become more stable
Radio isotopes
5. Different Types of Bonds
a.) Covalent Bonds: When electrons are shared