Essay on Anatomy Ch 1 Notes

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MAMMALIAN ANATOMY:
BIO. 2233; FALL 2013

• Monday, August 26, Classes Begin
• Monday, September 2, LABOR DAY HOLIDAY
• Monday, September 9, Last Day to Drop a
Course
• Tuesday, October 22, Last Day to withdraw a
Course
• Wednesday, Oct. 23; Registration begins(Spring- 2014)

• Thursday to Sunday, Nov. 28 to 30: THANKS
GIVING BREAK
• Wednesday, Dec. 4: Weekday classes end
• Thursday & Friday, Dec. 5 & 6: Study days

• MONDAY DECEMBER 9 TO 14
FINAL EXAMS

SOME POINEERS OF THE
CONTEMPORARY ANATOMY

ARISTOTLE: 384 – 322 B.C.
Father or Founder of Science
He was a physician to King of Macedonia, and tutor of Alexander the great.

CONTRIBUTIONS:
– Format for presentation of scientific treatise – 1) Statement of problem
– 2) Previous contribution
– 3) Description of current work
– 4) Conclusion & summary

Foundation of deductive logic—the
Syllogism
• 1) Major premise– generalization
• 2) Minor premise– particular
• 3) Conclusion
• ANATOMICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, i.e. observations
– 1) Animals with & with out backbone
– 2) Animals with red blood and without red blood

HIPPOCRATES: 460—370 B.C.
• Contemporaries of Plato, and Aristotle:
– Aphorism: “Life is short and the art is long; the occasion is fleeting; experience false; and judgment difficult.”
– Four humors, which are equated with the four elements: Earth, Air, Fire, and Water
– His Dictum: “ Premium non nocere” (To help or at least to do no harm)

GALEN: 130--<200 A.D.
From: NW Asia Minor
• He wrote a great deal and dissected a number of different kind of animals.
• Some Memorable Observations:
– 1) Described Platysmal muscle
– 2) Blood in arteries and veins (pulse)
– 3) Diaphragm & Breathing
– Uterus & Birth sequence
– Galen’s dictum: “ Trust your own eyes & practice dissection.” An Overview of Anatomy
• What is Anatomy?
• What comprises of this vast but consistent field of biology?
• Branches of anatomy
– Gross anatomy
– Microscopic anatomy (histology)
– Surface anatomy

• Other branches of anatomy
– Developmental anatomy
– Embryology
– Pathological anatomy (pathology)
– Radiographic anatomy
– Functional morphology

• Anatomical terminology
– Based on ancient Greek or Latin languages.
– Provides standard nomenclature worldwide

The Hierarchy of Structural Organization
• Chemical level—atoms form molecules
• Cellular level—cells and their functional subunits • Tissue level—a group of cells performing a common function

The Hierarchy of Structural Organization contd. • Organ level—a discrete structure made up of more than one tissue
• Organ system—organs working together for a common purpose
• Organism level—the result of all simpler levels working in unison

Systemic v. Regional Anatomy
• Systemic— study of anatomy by system
• Regional— study of anatomy by region
• Most students use a combination of regional and systemic study

Integumentary System





Forms external body covering
Protects deeper tissues from injury
Synthesizes vitamin D
Site of cutaneous receptors
– (pain, pressure, etc.) and sweat and oil glands Skeletal System





Protects and supports body organs
Provides a framework for muscles
Blood cells formed within bones
Stores minerals

Muscular System






Allows manipulation of environment
Locomotion
Facial expression
Maintains posture
Produces heat

Nervous System
• Fast-acting control system
• Responds to internal and external changes

Endocrine System
• Glands secrete hormones that regulate:
– Growth
– Reproduction
– Nutrient use

Cardiovascular System
• Blood vessels transport blood
– Blood carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
– It also carries nutrients and wastes
• Heart pumps blood through blood vessels

Lymphatic System/Immunity





Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels
Disposes of debris in the lymphatic system
Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes)
Mounts attack against foreign substances in the body

Respiratory System
• Keeps blood supplied with oxygen
• Removes carbon dioxide
• Gas exchange occurs through…