Chapter 17: Blood Vessels 1. Hemostasis * Stops blood loss from damaged blood vessel walls * Establishes framework for tissue repairs * Usually divided into 3 phases but continuous process 1. Vascular phase 2. Platelet phase 3. Coagulation phase 2. Events of the vascular phase * Endothelial cells contract exposing underlying basal lamina to bloodstream * Endothelial cells release chemical factors, local hormones, and endothelins (stimulate smooth muscle and vascular spasms) * Endothelial cells become sticky * In capillaries, cell can reduce flow in vessel * Can cause platelets to attach 3. Events of the platelet phase * Begins with platelet attachment to endothelial cells, basal lamina, exposed collagen fibers, and each other * Platelets become activated and accumulate large numbers 4. Events of coagulation phase * Starts 30 seconds or more after damage * Involves complex sequence of steps leading to conversion of circulating fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin * Blood cells and platelets are trapped in fibrin network * Blood vessels conduct blood between heart and peripheral tissues * Two circuits 1. Pulmonary circuit (to and from lungs) 2. Systemic circuit (to and from rest of the body) * Each circuit begins and ends with the heart * Occurs in sequence * Specific vessels * Arteries (transport blood away from the heart * Veins (transport blood to the heart) * Capillaries (exchange substances between blood and tissues) * Interconnect smallest arteries and smallest veins * General circulation pathway through circuits 1. Right atrium (entry chamber) 2. Pulmonary circuit * Pulmonary arteries to pulmonary capillaries to pulmonary veins 3. Left atrium 4. Systemic circuit * Systemic arteries to systemic capillaries to systemic veins * Both arteries and veins have three layers 5. Tunica intima (tunica interna) * Endothelial cells in contact with blood 6. Tunica media * Contains concentric sheets of smooth muscle * Capable of vasoconstriction or vasodilation * Most variable layer 7. Tunica externa * Connective tissue sheath with collagen and elastic fibers * Five general blood vessel classes 8. Arteries * Elastic arteries (large vessels close to the heart that stretch and recoil when heart beats) * Muscular arteries (medium sized arteries, distribute blood to skeletal muscles and internal organs) 9. Arterioles * Poorly defined tunica externa and tunica media only 1-2 smooth muscle cells thick 10. Capillaries * Thin, exchange vessels 11. Venules * Small veins lacking tunica media 12. Veins * Medium sized veins (tunica media is thin but tunica externa is thick with longitudinal collagen fibers * Large veins ( superior + inferior vena cava and tributaries having thin tunica media) * Typical capillary consists of tube of endothelial cells with delicate basal lamina * Neither tunica media nor externa are present * Average diameter= 8 um * About the same as an RBC * Three types of capillaries 13. Continuous capillaries 14. Fenestrated capillaries 15. Sinusoid capillaries 1. Continuous capillaries * Endothelium is a complete lining * Located throughout body in all tissues except epithelium and cartilage * Permit diffusion of water, small solutes and lipid-soluble materials. 2. Fenestrated capillaries * Contain windows or pores penetrating endothelium * Permit rapid exchange or water and larger solutes * Examples: capillaries in brain and endocrine organs, adsorptive areas if GI…
Anatomy & Physiology 2
December 10, 2013
Chapter 18- The Cardiovascular System: The Blood
Blood (Connective Tissue)
Plasma- liquid potion of blood 55% plasma
Formed elements- cells and cell fragments of blood
RBC= red blood cell
WBC= white blood cells or leukocytes- platelets
Hemopoiesis – blood cell production
Pluripotent stem cell- cells with capacity to develop into several types of cells
Blood is very unique, nothing else is like it.
Blood cell production takes place…
Anatomy and Physiology
Exam Re-grade III
1a. A – For this question I lost points because I honestly got mixed up with the words spermatogonia and spermatozoon. Spermatogonia is actually the specialized cells that sperm production beings with, these cells lie on the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule. When the spermatogonia begin to divide sperm production begins.
B – The correct answer should be spermatozoa or spermatozoon. In the first division of sperm development…
alveolar capillaries while removing CO2 from
Increased size and density of muscle fibers
allowing muscles to extract more oxygen
from blood providing more energy for
exercise. Muscles can also contact with more
spped and force
Notes on long term effects:
The cardiovascular system
Heart muscles become stronger Called Cardiac Hypertrophy
This increases the blood it pumps per beat (stroke volume) and blood it pumps per minute (…
inhaling: diaphragm contracts, rib cage rises and increases the volume of the chest cavity, air rushes into the lungs
expiration: diaphragm relaxes & moves up into original dome shape. This decreases the chest volume & moves air out of the lungs
diaphragm: a sheet of muscle that separates the organs of the chest cavity from those of the abdminal cavity. Moves up and down to aid in respiration.
alveoli: tiny air sacs within the lungs where gas exchange occurs between air & blood. 1 cell thick and…
BIO. 2233; FALL 2013
• Monday, August 26, Classes Begin
• Monday, September 2, LABOR DAY HOLIDAY
• Monday, September 9, Last Day to Drop a
• Tuesday, October 22, Last Day to withdraw a
• Wednesday, Oct. 23; Registration
• Thursday to Sunday, Nov. 28 to 30: THANKS
• Wednesday, Dec. 4: Weekday classes end
• Thursday & Friday, Dec. 5 & 6: Study days
• MONDAY DECEMBER 9 TO 14
SOME POINEERS OF THE
of anatomy and physiology:
1. Generally speaking, what does the study of anatomy and physiology tell you about structure and
function relationships in the human body? What determines function?
- Structure determines function. Anatomy is how we describe structures, where it is located, what
it is made of, and who it is related to. The physiology tells us the function.
2. Anatomy and physiology can be studied from many perspectives. What is meant by gross anatomy
and microscopic anatomy? What…
have more multimedia and some extra
examples, but the content is essentially the same as your printable outline]
I. Anatomy vs. Physiology
A. Anatomy - the study of the structure and organization of the human body
B. Physiology - the study of body function
II. Topics of Anatomy
A. GROSS Anatomy - the study of body structures that can be seen with the naked eye
1. SYSTEMIC Anatomy - all of the organs with related functions are studied
together as a system; for example, the skeletal system; we…
Chapter 1 - The Human Body: Notes Mrs. Peck
I. AN OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (p. 2)
A. Anatomy (p. 2)
Anatomy- the study of the structure and shape of the body & body parts & their
relationships to one another
1. Gross Anatomy- study of large observable structures
2. Microscopic Anatomy- study of cells & tissues of body (as seen thru microscope)
Dissection- aimed at helping us understand the f’ns of ea of the various levels of
organization, but body works as a whole & is more complex…
Chemical Reactions and Equations
The “Chemical Reactions and Equations” lab was to observe physical and chemical properties associated with chemical reactions, to make note of/document the evidence of the chemical reaction, to practice balancing equations, to predict the products that form from a reaction, and to have an understanding; did the elements bond, break apart, or did they switch partners in the reaction (determine what happened to the reactant/s as they formed new product/s)…
always highlight important information and taking notes.
Linking new material with known information (creating associations)
I always use prior knowledge to learn something new.
Integrating various learning styles
I learn by writing and listening.
I ask questions all the time.
Reviewing and practicing
I practice everyday what I am learning.
*Which mnemonic devices might be helpful in remembering human anatomy?
Aleah can use acronyms as a mnemonic device…