Anatomy Notes Essay

Submitted By RosyV0505
Words: 674
Pages: 3

Anatomy & Physiology 2
December 10, 2013

Chapter 18- The Cardiovascular System: The Blood

Blood (Connective Tissue)
Plasma- liquid potion of blood 55% plasma
Formed elements- cells and cell fragments of blood
RBC= red blood cell
WBC= white blood cells or leukocytes- platelets
Hemopoiesis – blood cell production
Pluripotent stem cell- cells with capacity to develop into several types of cells

Blood is very unique, nothing else is like it.

Blood cell production takes place in the red bone marrow
Physical Characteristics of Blood
More viscous than water
Temperature about 1 degree C higher than oral or rectal body temperature
Alkaline pH (7.35-7.45)
~ 8% of total bod weight
5-6 liter in adult male
4-5 liter in adult female
Spleen is an oil filter- will replace worn out blood cells every 120 days.
Functions of Blood
Oxygen from lungs to body tissues
Metabolic wastes from tissues to lungs, kidneys, and liver
Nutrients from GI tract to body cells
Regulation pH via buffers body temperature
Components of Blood
45% formed elements
99% are RBCs
1% WBCs and platelets
55% blood plasma
How many cells in the human body? Approx. 100 trillion
Oxygen is the most viral element of the body
Blood Plasma
91.5% water
7% proteins (synthesized by hepatocytes- in the liver)
Most plentiful is albumin 54% of all proteins
Helps maintain blood osmotic pressure- keeps h2o in blood stream and not letting it get into your tissues
Globulins 38% of all proteins (antibodies) Igg, Iga, Igm
Fibrinogen 7% of all proteins (helps in your blood clots) fibrinogen + thrombin = fibrin
1.5% solutes other than proteins
Electrolytes, nutrients, gases, regulatory substances, vitamins, and waste products
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Secreted by kidney cells when blood oxygen is low
Targets cells in red bone marrow that will become red blood cells
Promotes increased numbers of mature red blood cells
More mature red blood cells carry more oxygen so blood oxygen level is restored to normal
Hormone that stimulates RBC production
Anemia- abnormally low hematocrit
Polycythemia- abnormally high hematocrit
Process by which formed elements develop
Before birth
Liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes of fetus
Last trimester and beyond Red bone marrow
Found in spaces of trabeculae of spongy bone
0.05-0.1& of red bone marrow are pluripotent stem cells
RBC or Erythrocytes
Contain hemoglobin
Adult males
~5.4 million rbcs per microliter of blood
One drop of blood is ~50 microliters
RBCs leave marrow at 2 million per second
Same rate they are destroyed

RBC Anatomy
Biconcave on disks
~8 micrometers diameter
Lack a nucleus and other organelles angit Lack mitochondria
Essentially a plasma membrane, cytosol, and hemoglobin
Contains ~280 million hemoglobin mol Heme is made to help bind oxygen
Bile brakes down and emulsifies fats, the way body gets rid of cholesterol and fats