This exam consists of ____ questions worth ____ points each = total of 100 points and 5 bonus questions worth up to 2 additional points each, but only up to a total of 100 points.
Organization of life (cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism) and what each one consists of. chemical level: atoms combine to form molecules cellular level: cells are made up of molecules tissue level: tissue consists of similar types of cells organ level: organs are made up of different types of tissues organ system level: organ systems consists of different organs that work together closley organismal level: human organisms are made up of many organ systems
The layers of epidermis in order from deep to superficial and what are the defining characteristics of epidermis?
Stratum basale: cells are actively dividing stem cell; some newly formed cells become part of the more superficial layers
Stratum Spinosum: cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin stratum granulosum; cells are flattened orgenalles are flattned organelles are detiorating, cytoplasm full of granuales. stratum corneum: cells are dead; represented only by flat membranous sacs filled with keratin. Outer layer of the skin.
Functions of the following: cuboidal epithelium; responsble for seretion and absorbtion; ciliated types propel mucus and reproductive cells simple columnar epitheliume; Secretes and absorbs; ciliated types propel mucus or reproductive cellsfusiono ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium; functions are mainly secretion and absorbtion simple squamous epithelium; functions as diffusion and filtration secretion in serous membranes microvilli: the projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells they increase surface area for absorbtion
Review surface body landmarks.
Review orientation terms, such as lateral, medial, superficial, deep, proximal, distal, etc….
Review directions, such as coronal, saggital, oblique, frontal, posterior, transverse, caudal, inferior, etc….
Review the quadrants of the body, such as right upper quadrant, etc…. and what anatomic structures would be located there. For example, in what quadrant is the spleen located?
Review the major regions of the body, such as inguinal, iliac, lumbar, hypogastric, hypochondriac, epigastric and umbilical and what anatomy structures would be located there. For example, where are the ribs located? (above)
Review the functions of the major organ systems of the body, such as lymphatic system,
Integumentary System: is the external covering of the body, skin. It waterproofs the body and protects its deeper tissue from injury, it also helps regulate body temp/
Skeletal system: consists of bones cartilages, ligamensts and joints. It supports the bosy and provides framework, formation of blood cells also happens in the cavaties of the skeleton
Muscular system: formed by skeletal muscle. Allows for movement, maintains posture and produces heat
Nervous system: body’s control system, consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors. Responds to internal and external changes by activating the appropriate musces and glands
Endocrine system: glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells
Cardiovascular system: Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste etc; the heart pumps blood
Lymphatic system: picks up fluids leaked from blood vessels and returns it to the blood, houses white blood cells for immunity
Respitory system: keeps blood suppied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide, the exchange happens through the walla of the air sac
Digestive system; breaks food down into small units that enter the blood for distribution to the body cells: indigestible food is eliminated through poop
Urinary system: eliminates nitrogen containing wastes from the body, regulates…