● Describe the formation and purpose of ionic bonds, covalent bonds, disulfide bonds and hydrogen bonds.
● Explain the importance of water to the functioning of the human body.
● Name and describe the water compartments.
● Explain the roles of oxygen and carbon dioxide in cell respiration.
● Explain the pH scale. State the normal pH range for body fluids.
● Describe the function of proteins.
● Explain how enzymes function as catalysts. Chapter 1
● Define the terms anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology
○ Anatomy the study of body structure
○ Physiology the study of how the body functions
○ Pathophysiology the study of disorders of functioning
● Name the levels of organization in the body from simplest to most complex
■ Inorganic usually simple molecules made up of one or two elements other than carbon (few exceptions)
■ Organic often complex and always contain carbon and hydrogen
● nucleic acids
■ Smallest living units of structure and function
■ Over 200 million diffent types
■ Body is a “city of cells”
■ Group of cells with similar structure and function (fire department)
● Epithelial cover or line body surfaces
● Connective connect and support parts of the body; some transport or store materials
● Muscle specialized for contraction
● Nerve specialized to generate and transmit electrochemical impulses ○ Organ
■ Group of tissues precisely arranged so as to accomplish specific functions ○ Organ systems
■ group of organs that all contribute to a particular function
● urinary, digestive, respiratory, ect. ● Define the terms metabolism, metabolic rate, and homeostasis
○ Metabolism all of the chemical reatctions and physical processes that take place within the body
○ Metabolic Rate energy production per unit of time
○ Homeostasis ability of the human body to maintain a relatively stable metabolism despite many constant changes
● Explain how negative feeback mechanism works and how a positive feedback mechanism differs
○ Negative feedback mechanism body’s response reverses the stimulus and keeps some aspect of the body metabolism within its normal range
■ Body tempertaure increase → sweating → decreases temperature → sweating stops
○ Positive feedback mechanism respose to the stimulus does not stop or reverse the stimulus, but instead keeps