Ancient Egypt Essays

Submitted By mangob12345
Words: 744
Pages: 3

Civilization along the Nile: Egypt
- Egypt= " the gift of the Nile "
- major crop= cotton
- Nile flows South to North and empties into the Mediterranean Sea
- 150 years ago= John Spekes found the source of the Nile which is Lake Victoria in Uganda (lake was named after Queen Victoria)
- Reasons Why it was Difficult to Invade Egypt 1. to the east and west= Sahara Desert 2. the Nile River had six huge waterfalls that would be tough to get through
- Ancient Egypt= "Kemet" which means the land of black soil
- the first settlement in Egypt= about 6000 B.C.
- Upper and Lower Egypt: -Upper - southern Egypt - called the Nile Valley - Lower - northern Egypt - called the Delta
- 31 dynasties throughout Ancient Egyptian history 1. First Dynasty= King Menes 2. Last Dynasty= Cleopatra

- King Menes - first dynasty - united Upper and Lower Egypt~ 3100 B.C. - established the first capital of Egypt= Memphis (2nd= Thebes) - first to take the title of pharaoh (means great house) - Old Kingdom started and Egypt had great prosperity under King Menes (the Old Kingdom lasted about 600 years) - hieroglyphics were established - written on papyrus - reed pen - ink was made of: water, ash/ soot, and vegetable gum
- 2 classes of People: 1. the king, his family, and the priests 2. everyone else
* 1799= 1. Napoleon invaded the British while they had occupied Egypt 2. Champollian (archaeologist) discovered the Rosetta Stone and broke the code of the hieroglyphics - Bottom Row: Greek - Middle Row: Demotic/ "Coptic" (common language of the people) - Top Row: Hieroglyphics - currently displayed at the British Museum

* Oblisks= tall pointy monuments used to honor those unscripted


- Old Kingdom= time of great prosperity, lasted about 600 years, great pyramids were built (valley of the kings)
- towards the end of the old kingdom= FAMINE (destroyed the Old Kingdom)
- riot from famine= civil war (lasted 125 years)= the end of the Old Kingdom (upper class vs. lower class)
- after civil war ends= Middle Kingdom starts

- Hyksos= tribe from Asia (had chariots and horses- Egypt didn't)
- Hyksos came by land and conquered the Egyptians
- Egyptians studied the Hyksos and then learned how to make the same weapons, etc. and turn the tables on the Hyksos and drive them out
- pharaoh granted everyone the right to be embalmed (Egyptian afterlife- "the happy fields of food"- Osiris= the god of the dead and Isis was his wife)
- embalming took about 40 days to treat and wrap the body (taking out organs (threw away the brain- no purpose), cleaned the body, stuff the body, purified them, and wrapped it) (organs went into canopic jars)
- embalming done at the house of the dead (workers lived there)
- buried members of the family, pets, and servants with the till