River: around which rivers were these civilizations based?
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Water source ,
Nile provided water, fertile soil for farming, transportation. Deserts, rugged coastlines, the Nile, the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea protected Egypt from invasion
Water from the rivers. Fertile soil.
Natural protection from mountains and the Indian Ocean.
Water from the rivers. Fertile soil . Protection from invasion by mountains, deserts and oceans
-Some years the rivers flooded to dangerous levels and destroyed homes, villages. while other years were droughts.
- The flat, bare land provided no natural defense against invasion.
- Limited natural resources.
Dry climate. Yearly floods.
Monsoons brought destructive flooding sometimes and horrible droughts other times.
-Natural barriers somewhat isolated China from other civilizations.
-Faced environment challenges such as floods,
Type of government: Describe the form of government including the type of ruler each civilization had Priests ruled Sumerian cities because the people believed that the priests had direct contact with the gods so they should be the people in charge. Collected taxes and made offerings to the gods.
Upper and Lower Egypt were united by Menes and he began the system of dynasties (a series of rulers from the same family). Egypt was ruled by pharaohs who were believed to be gods.
Was ran by a strong central government.
China was ruled by emperors who came from dynasties. Emperors were thought to have the Mandate of Heaven, or the approval of the gods so people followed them devoutly.
Religious Beliefs: Describe the overall religion as well as list any specific religions of the civilization and a brief identification for each
Polytheistic (believed in many gods). Sumerians believed that the gods controlled all aspects of life and when good or bad things happened it was because the gods were either pleased or displeased.
Polytheistic. Pharaohs were thought to be gods and were buried in pyramids. Originally it was believed that only pharaohs could hope for pleasant afterlives – everyone else was doomed to misery and sorrow. Over time, though, this idea changed and it was believed that everyone was entitled to a prosperous afterlife.
Social Classes:Describe the social classes in terms of the different groups who existed in that