Around 3100 B.C an ancient civilization arose. This ancient civilization was Ancient Egypt, which was located in the northeastern part of Africa concentrated around the Nile River. Like many other civilizations the ancient Egyptians were concentrated around the Nile River due to the fertile land, which helped aid agriculture and it provided a quick way of transportation by boat, which helped communication and increased trade. Due to the abundance of food the people of Ancient Egypt were able to use their free time and resources for cultural, technological, artistic as well as various other pursuits. Architecture was a way in which cultural, technological and artistic pursuits were achieved. Different types of architecture included houses, pyramids, tombs, temples, statues and monuments. As a result of the scarcity of wood, the two most important building materials were sun baked mud brick and stone. The stone used for the building material included mainly limestone, but also sandstone and granite in considerable quantities. From the Old Kingdom (2649-2150 B.C.) onward stone was reserved for only the tombs and temples while brick was used for royal palaces, fortresses, the walls of temple precincts and towns. With the pyramids, the core of the pyramids came from stone quarried in the area already while the limestone, now eroded away, that was used to face the pyramids came from the other side of the Nile River and had to be quarried, ferried across, and cut during the dry season before they could be pulled into place on the pyramid. Ancient Egyptian houses were made with mud, which was obtained from the Nile River. One flaw with the use of sun-dried mud for houses was that when the Nile flooded which happened often the houses were washed away. Temples and tombs figured high within the main religious rituals. Temples were built to worship the Egyptian gods and were constructed using stone, which wasn’t widely used in other buildings like the houses or the royal places. The temples of Ancient Egypt were made to worship the Egyptian gods. Because the pharaohs were considered as gods, pyramids/tombs were built for them after their deaths. Throughout history there are four different types of structures, which the Egyptians used as tombs. Over time, the development of each of these structures led to what is known as the true pyramid. The earliest structures were called mastabas (Mastaba is the Arabic word for stone bench). The mastabas were made of mud or stone bricks faced with limestone slabs. Unlike the pyramids most people are familiar with, they were rectangular shaped, flat-topped, and had sloping sides. From there, the mastaba developed into the step pyramid. The step pyramids were not much different than the mastabas, in that they were a series of mastabas placed one on top of the other; each smaller than the one beneath. A series of ramps would be used to get the stones from one mastaba level to the next. Mastabas Step Pyramid The first step pyramid was designed by the architect Imhotep for King Djoser in 2780 B.C. This pyramid still stands today on the west bank of the Nile River at Sakkara near Memphis. As the fourth dynasty came about the Egyptian pyramids went through another phase of development and design. The bent pyramid was a combination of the mastaba and what would later be known as the true pyramid. The bottom portion of the bent pyramid looked like a mastaba while the middle and upper portions resembled a true pyramid. This was sort of the halfway point of the evolution towards the true pyramid. There were four basic materials that the Egyptians used to build the pyramids: limestone, pink granite, basalt, and alabaster. It was during the reign of King Snefru (2613-2589 BC) founder of the fourth dynasty, that the fourth and final pyramid, the true pyramid, was built. The builders knew what materials to use and how to transport those materials.…
Discuss the Significant reoccurrence of the pyramid design incorporated throughout different culture around the world in History.
Throughout Ancient history a large spectacle that always attracts the attention of historian and archaeologists are the pyramids. This is for many reasons such as the significance they play in religion, daily life and probably the most engrossing is how commonly it reoccurs over again throughout different cultures in history. From the most well-known and oldest the…
and After Life in Egyptian Art
The Ancient Egyptians one of the most amazing ancient cultures, Egyptians are famous for their unique ideas, beliefs, innovation and their architecture of the pyramids. Ancient Egyptians believed in life after death, they believed that life goes on and it doesn’t end when the person dies. All these beliefs towards death and after life played a big role in Egyptian Art.
Death and after life played a big role in Egyptian Art, the Ancient Egyptian civilization was…
Ancient Egypt Civilization
April 26, 2011
Ancient Egypt Civilization
Civilization is most commonly defined and known as the way of life in a society. It is the way a society is structured, and each civilization includes its own key features. Societies and civilizations today all have their own unique structures. Egyptians developed the first organized forms of social structure, art, literature, medicine, religion, and architecture. From 3100 B.C. to 30 B.C., inhabitants…
the culture of ancient Greece.
5. Ka- Egyptian philosophy that the part of the human being that defines personality and defines life on earth and after death.
6. the Han- This is nowhere in the chapter or the glossary.
7. Paleolithic- is a prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered (Modes I and II), and covers roughly 99% of human technological prehistory.
8. Tell el Amarna style- unique among the Egyptian world for its more…
Module Title : Architectural Context
Course : BA(Hons) Architecture
As we live in the twenty-first century where the modern age is evolving along with the use of digital information to make the lives of people much easier and convenient. As we look towards the modern world and compare today’s architecture with the ancient architecture of the Roman empires we can agree that the ancient Roman architecture is known for three most important things. Firstly the arch, secondly…
The ancient human remains of the Boy King, Tutankhamun, were found inside tomb KV62, which was hidden in the Valley of the Kings, Egypt. There were more than 5000 artifacts buried with him, such as dismantled chariots, clothes, Sarcophagus, jewels and representations of the Ancient Egyptian gods. All of these items can be dated back to the years of Tutankhamuns reign, which was approximately 1336 BC - 1327 BC, however, it is impossible to know the exact quantity of antiquities, as his tomb was robbed…
The discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamen
The event that changed archaeologist’s knowledge on the previously little known Egyptian civilisation
Side panel of wooden chest
Chariots (left hand side)
An Egyptian game of senet
Tutankhamen/attan( later explained in this report) was not a ‘famous’ pharaoh of Egypt, he was not a powerful leader, he was not responsible for the flourishing of his empire…
Art History 1
September 25, 2014
Evolution of Architecture
The way a city is built and set up tells one of the many features as to the main goals and ideas of a civilization. Some time periods are based around common themes of prayer, tribute to the dead, and the actual way of life of many cultures. When taking a look into the Neolithic time period, Catal Hoyuk and Jericho seem to be two of the first experiences with urban living. In the Ancient Near East, daily life was centered on the construction…
Ancient artwork is rather stimulating to learn about. It causes you to think about the art and what its civilization must have been like. Egyptian art was particularly interesting due to how colorful Egyptian culture is. The Rosetta Stone, Sphinx of Taharqo, The Standard of Ur, Narmer’s Palette, and The bust of Nefertiti are all portrayals of Ancient Egyptian culture.
The Rosetta Stone is and Ancient Egyptian artifact that includes text in Greek, hieroglyphics, and demotic Egyptian writing…
When most people mention Ancient Egypt the first thing that comes to mind is the Pyramids. To construct such monuments required a mastery of art, architecture and social organization that few cultures would ever rival. The pyramids are said to have built Egypt by being the force that knit together the kingdom's economy. Their creations were so substantial, that the sight of these vast pyramids would take your breath away. Today, the valley of the Nile has an open air museum so people can witness…