The Animal Liberation Front Singer’s Animal Liberation is based on the principle of utilitarianism for animals. Utilitarianism is a theory that states the proper course of action in a given situation should be the one that provides the greatest happiness overall, and is a form of consequentialism. He argues that the greatest happiness principle of utilitarianism should be extended to include the welfare of animals, not just humans. Singer states that humans have developed what he calls “speciesism,” in that we have a bias toward our own species in the same sense as racism and sexism. Singer also argues that animals should be included in utilitarian decisions on the basis that they can feel pain and suffering, not their intellect or ability to feel emotion. Animal Liberation also details current conditions and practices used on animals and calls for change to our current practices. In Animal Liberation Singer attempts to show a lack of justification in the way the human species treats and regards other species. Singer first points out evidence to speciesism in the general public’s perception that animals should not have rights just for the sole basis that they are animals. Singer on the other hand believes all beings that have the capacity for suffering should receive equal moral consideration. Singer declares, “ Pain is pain, and the importance of preventing unnecessary pain and suffering does not diminish because the being that suffers is not a member of our own species.” Singer argues that to deny animals this consideration is the same as denying woman rights based off her sex, or denying an African American rights solely off his or her race. Singer declares that if one cannot logically defend both sexism and racism, then it is impossible to justify speciesism. Singer sees no reason for the terrible treatment of animals to continue, while the blasphemies of sexism and racism were declared unjust decades ago. Singer claims that once one type of subordination is denounced, it should be easy to eradicate the rest. Singer believes that as women, different ethic groups, and religious groups gain equal rights it becomes increasingly difficult to defend the subordination that humans have put on other species. Singer relates sexism, racism, and speciesism by his explanation, “ Pain and suffering are in themselves bad and should be prevented or minimized irrespective of the race, sex or species of the being that suffers” Singer urges humans to not error in the ways of the past and start giving animals equal consideration and treatment. Another argument that is made why animals do not have equal moral consideration is that they lack a certain intellect humans deem sufficient. However, Singer believes that equal moral consideration should not be based off intellect or the ability to feel emotion, otherwise human characteristics, but on the ability of that species to feel pain or pleasure. In this point Singer does note that he does not believe that humans and animals should have equal rights. Singer states “There are obviously important differences between human and other animals, and these differences must give rise to some differences in the rights that each have ” Singer recognizes that most animals cannot accomplish and do the things that most grown humans can do. Humans, according to Singer, are also the only species that can make moral judgments and the have the capacity to reflect on the decisions made. Animals lack the ability to determine moral judgments and the capability to voice their thoughts. Therefore, Singer asserts that is must be humans that are the voice for equal treatment. Singer argues that most children and those unfortunate enough to be severely mentally retarded cannot do those tasks as well. If an individual sees a severely retarded child having cosmetic testing done on him or her that individual would claim that the child’s rights had been violated. Yet, those same individuals do not intervene…
need is greatest in Manitoba, Ontario and Alberta.
Nowadays, animal testing is a subject that often occurs. Some people think it is needed in research, meanwhile others think it is not allowed to sacrifice animals for sciences because they are treated badly during their lifetime. Although some opponents do not consider the fact that animals are also used in food industry. Basically, laboratory animals are breed for sciences and will guarantee improvements in this field, so everyone…
activists are getting increasingly violent. John Berlau, Senior Fellow for Finance and Access to Capital in the Center for Economic Freedom at the Competitive Enterprise Institute, argues that environmental activists are a threat to the environment, animals, people and the economy. These activist groups are causing damage far beyond their intent to “grab” attention to their cause.
Berlau’s argument is supported by narratives from diverse group of sources. He opens his argument with an incident…
execute warrants for searches and wiretapping without notifying the object of the warrant. It also increased the scope of authority on domestic terrorism, leading to serious consequences for radical organizations like the Earth Liberation Front and Animal Liberation Front.
to be simply put, it takes away your civil rights if you are under investigation of being a terrorist. they can even imprison you and arrest you for no particular reason.
the Patriot Act streamlines communications…
as well as civil liberties
Political parties seek election, whilst pressure groups do not participate
Political parties want to form the government.
Pressure groups put their message in ways other than at Parliament
E.g. The Animal Liberation Front attacked Huntingdon Life Sciences
Political parties have limits on their funding due to the Neill Report, pressure groups not.
E.g. Scottish Parliament election funding cap £1.5 million
Political parties accountable in law, pressure…
Civil Rights phase called the Black Liberation movement became the central in getting African Americans to stand up and fight for their Civil Rights. The movement used two main strategies, legalism and mass direct action, to work against the American apartheid. These strategies were a part of many of the campaigns for civil rights and were the reason for the success that they achieved.
There are many components to a social movement and the Black Liberation movement could not have made the difference…
a very comprehensive view of terrorism. It includes September 11 and the Oklahoma City bombing. But it also includes the murder of abortion-clinic doctors. And the guard shot at the Holocaust Museum in 2009. And all the instances of the Earth Liberation Front setting fire to SUV dealerships or police stations. It also includes serious but unsuccessful attempts — like the May 2010 attempted vehicle bombing in Times Square.
If we just look at the decade between 2001 and 2011, we still see that the…
Phoenix: The Rise and Fall of a Feminist Counterculture. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999. Print.
Providing a broad historical perspective, the book focuses on the New Left countercultural stress as a springboard for activating the women’s liberation movement.
Thompson, Denise. Radical Feminism Today. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, 2001. Print.
A true encyclopedia of radical feminism where the author assumes an original research position claiming that radical feminism is actually ‘feminism…
unthinkable crimes were committed against the Jews, Gypsies, and other racial groups. No one would have ever imagined the thousands of helpless people that were massacred during Hitler’s rein Jew’s silent pleas and prayers would be unheard until the liberation day came. In the meantime, thousands of Jews and other racial groups were sent from ghettos to concentration camps, one of them being Auschwitz. Several forms of extermination came about over time to speed up the process. Life at a death camp…
Animal Testing: Necessary and Humane in Modern Practice
History of Animal Testing
Diseases Treated in Animals
Parvo, Leukemia, Rabies
Diseases Treated in Humans
Polio, Anthrax, Smallpox
Laws Governing Testing
Negative Aspects of Testing
Loopholes in Law
Alternatives to Animal Testing
Conclusion Animal Testing: Necessary and Humane in Modern Practice
The struggle against sickness and disease is not over, yet medical progress is being threatened by activists…
the teachers/ companions along the way
• Are monks and nuns
• Live on monasteries and carry on the Buddha’s teaching
• Sangha: harmonious community
• Buddha, Dharma, Sangha all work together towards enlightenment
• Recite in front of monk/nun
• I go to the Buddha for refugee
• I go to the Dharma for refugee
• I go to the Sangha for refugee
• Taking refugee is the step to enlightenment
( Becoming a Buddhist Monk
• There are 2 steps to become a monk…