Avery, P. & S. Ehrlich (1992) Teaching American English Pronunciation. Oxford University Press.
The chapter begins by making clear that listening and speaking should be taught simultaneously to all class levels and to all class types. Authentic listening heightens awareness and will contribute to easing student stress. Even teachers can use their own natural speech for classroom purposes by speaking at a natural pace with no voice distortion. The chapter then continues by mentioning the types of activities that offer something for every level in order to reinforce grammar points & language functions: Minimal pair tasks (recognize specific sounds), Stress assignment tasks (for patterns), Function Word tasks (sound modifications), and Intonation tasks.
Lieb, J. (2011). Slang: Breathing Life Into English. In B. A. Jones (Ed.), Teachers Helping Teachers (pp. 56-64). Tokyo: Japan Association for Language Teaching. Retrieved from: tht-japan.org
Lieb also mentions how students are frustrated by real world speech once they arrive in the host county. Therefore teachers should make an effort to teach slang in the classroom through the use of movies and other forms of entertainment. Lieb explains the current perspective of teachers and the lack of slang in textbooks. Lieb says that there are different levels to slang and it is best to start with the "most common slang expressions" first, then gradually increase the difficulty depending on the "targeted subculture". Lieb concedes that Teachers would also have to "incorporate clear instruction on its correct pragmatic usage" in order to ensure slang is used responsibly and in the correct arena.
Moore, S. H., & J. R. Carreon (2012). Hidden Challenges that Radio DJ's Present to ESL/EFL listeners. LEARN Journal: Language Education And Acquisition Research Network, 5, 19-29.
According to the author, radio, specifically DJ talk, offers opportunities for bottom-up (grammar & sounds), top-down (schemata & culture), and critical thinking (voice behind the message) processing for students based on proficiency levels because it is contains contextualized, repetitive, engaging, persuasive speech to analyze in the form of false starts, fast-paced speech rate, and use of idioms.When Teachers used radio in the past it was highly edited. The author argues that the unedited version should be taught and analyzed too. The scripted vs. unscripted to nature of radio with its everyday & institutional talk allows student to question other aspects of listening and, thus develop critical thinking skills. Plus, radio with English programming is easily accessible which would entice students to continue their studies outside of the classroom.
Nation, I. (2001). Vocabulary and listening and speaking. In I. Nation, Learning Vocabulary in Another Language (pp. 114-143). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
The chapter addresses listening from the perspective of vocabulary acquisition that leads to the ELL ultimately gaining the knowledge and confidence to produce or to speak in the L2 fluently. In order to help ELL's with their journey teachers need to choose listening material that learners would be interested in and able to understand. The material needs to allow for repeated retrieval of vocabulary with an opportunity to decontextualize words and phrases while challenging learners by introducing new words in differing contexts to stretch their knowledge of the word. Nation then goes on to list activities: information transfer to charts, semantic mapping, making decisions scenarios, split information task, retell the story, role play, ranking and ordering.
Vidal, K. (2011, March). A Comparison of the Effects of Reading and Listening on Incidental Vocabulary Acquistion. Language Learning: A Journal of Research in Language Studies, 61(1), 219-258.
The author conducted a study that…