Answers Lab09 RespAnatomy Essay

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R E V I E W

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S H E E T
NAME ____________________________________

EXERCISE

LAB TIME/DATE _______________________

Anatomy of the
Respiratory System
Upper and Lower Respiratory System Structures
1. Complete the labeling of the diagram of the upper respiratory structures (sagittal section).
Frontal sinus
Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone

Sphenoidal sinus

Superior concha
Pharyngeal tonsil

Middle concha

Opening of auditory or pharyngotympanic tube

Inferior concha

Nasopharynx

Nostril

Posterior nasal aperture
Hard palate

Soft palate
Uvula
Palatine tonsil

Tongue

Lingual tonsil
Epiglottis

Oropharynx

Hyoid bone

Laryngopharynx

Thyroid cartilage of larynx
Cricoid cartilage

Vocal fold (true vocal cord)

Thyroid gland

Esophagus

Trachea

2. Two pairs of vocal folds are found in the larynx. Which pair are the true vocal cords (superior or inferior)?
Inferior

3. Name the specific cartilages in the larynx that correspond to the following descriptions. forms the Adam’s apple: thyroid

shaped like a signet ring: cricoid

a “lid” for the larynx: epiglottis

vocal cord attachment: arytenoid

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4. What is the significance of the fact that the human trachea is reinforced with cartilaginous rings?
Prevents its collapse during pressure changes occurring during breathing.

Of the fact that the rings are incomplete posteriorly? Allows a food bolus traveling down the posterior esophagus to bulge anteriorly. 5. What is the function of the pleural membranes? Produce a serous fluid that reduces friction during breathing movements and helps to hold the lungs tightly to the thorax wall which keeps the lungs inflated.

6. Name two functions of the nasal cavity mucosa. Warms and moistens incoming air.
7. The following questions refer to the primary bronchi.
Which is longer? Left

Larger in diameter? Right

More horizontal? Left

Which more commonly traps a foreign object that has entered the respiratory passageways? Right
8. Appropriately label all structures provided with leader lines on the diagrams below. trachea main (primary) bronchi

superior lobe of right lung

superior lobe of left lung

lobar (secondary) bronchus

segmental (tertiary) bronchus

alveolar duct inferior lobe

middle lobe alveoli

inferior lobe alveolar duct respiratory bronchioles

terminal bronchiole alveolar sac

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9. Trace a molecule of oxygen from the nostrils to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs: Nostrils → nasal cavity → pharynx → larynx → trachea → primary bronchus → lobar/segmental bronchi (etc.) → bronchiole → respiratory bronchiole → alveolar duct → alveolar sac → across alveolar/capillary walls → pulmonary blood

10. Match the terms in column B to the descriptions in column A.
Column A

Column B

n

1. connects the larynx to the primary bronchi

a.

alveolus

k

2. site of tonsils

b.

bronchiole

e

c.

conchae

3. food passageway posterior to the trachea

d.

epiglottis

e.

esophagus

f.

glottis

d

4. covers the glottis during swallowing of food

g

5. contains the vocal cords

g.

larynx

l

6. nerve that activates the diaphragm during inspiration

h.

palate

j

7. pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax

i.

pharyngotympanic tube

a

j.

parietal pleura

8. site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood

k.

pharynx

i

9. connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx

l.

phrenic nerve

m. primary (main) bronchi

f

10. opening…