Anthro 33 Midterm Study Gudie Essay

Submitted By aebird12
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Pages: 11

The Big 6:

Boundaries:
In group and out groups:
Age
Slang/Jargon
Regional Boundaries
Hierarchies:
Rankings of language us:
Standard v. non-standard (good v. bad)
Proper v. Improper
Performance:
Implementation of knowledge
Accountability for form and content
Assessment & Monitoring:
Paying attention to other’s/own language use to determine how to categorize them
Variation:
The distinguishable aspects of all linguistics and social levels
Socialization:
Becoming a member of groups:
Learning to speak in ways that aren’t just grammatically understandable but appropriate to one’s culture as well

Accent: systematic phonological variation inherent in any person’s speech
Adjacency Pairs: an example of conversational turn-taking- two utterances by two speakers one after another
Request for info  Provide info
Assessment  Disagreement
Apology  Acceptance
“Thank you”  “You’re welcome”
Anthropological Linguistics: The study of relations between language and culture and the relations between human biology, cognition and language
Code Switching: Speakers shift from one language or dialect to another
Goffman said that code switching also involves a change in tone, stance and way of thinking
Communicative Competence: being able to express one’s intent appropriately in varying social situations; making conversation. Linguistic competence plus knowledge of social rules for language use
Community: the belief system is shared, and its ideals are practiced by a group
Community of Practice: Group whose members come together and share activities, beliefs, and perceptions—interact for a shared purpose and often produce shared modes of communication- examples include clubs, cliques and other groups
Conversation Analysis: Examining naturally occurring verbal and non-verbal messages and interactions in order to identify, count, and analyze the frequency and occurrence of specific communicative utterances
Culture is KNOWLEDGE:
Knowledge: Patterns in the way of understanding and knowing a culture like knowing a language
Propositional knowledge (know that)
Procedural knowledge (how)
Culture is COMMUNICATION:
Culture is a system of signs
Human experience is an interpretive process
Language: indexicality is to point at things
Culture is a SYSTEM OF MEDIATION:
Instrument between the people and the world
Operates on a lot of levels
Material objects
Ideas
Languages/signs as tools
Culture is a SYSTEM OF PRACTICES:
Habitual disposition and expectation
Assume -> lot of personal space on the bus but this is different by place
Ideas about “good” and “bad” language is all depending on your community and practice
Culture is a SYSTEM OF PARTICIPATION:
Actions in the world are social

Prescriptive and Descriptive Approaches to Language:
Prescriptive: What should English be like? What forms should people us and what functions should they serve?
Descriptive: What is English like? What are it’s forms and how do they function in various situations?

Dialect: a variety of a language spoken by a particular group of people, based on regional differences or social differences such as gender, class, race or ethnicity
Dialectal and Superposed Variation:
Dialectal: Variations of language use within a speech community. No person will have the same homogenous grammar and lexicon
Superposed: Variation in language due to participation in a particular activity: Informal v. Professional
Erasure: defaulting to male pronoun when not obvious
Gaps v. Overlap: gap is when you wait for someone to finish talking, overlap is when you begin speaking before they finish- overlap is common in the United States
Gender (Grammatical): Masculine v. Feminine v. Neutral- does not have to be identical to the actual sex of the referent
Habitus: a subjective, but not individual, system of internalize structures, schemes of perception, conception, and action common to all members of the same group or class-…