Essay on Anthro EXAM REVIEW

Submitted By NicoleDiTraglia
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Pages: 31

Exam Review
Anthropology ­ studies the origins, beliefs, development, and customs of humans. It interests in earliest forms of human race. Anthropology is divided into three groups:
● Physical ­ how humans have adapted
● Cultural ­ different societies are compared
● Social ­ studies social organization of people
Questions anthropologists may ask include:
● how does the distant evolutionary past affect us today?
● how are humans different from apes?
Fields of study include:
● culture ­ is it transmitted from one person to the other?
● ethnographic studies ­ cultures change over time
● myth ­ cultural values are transmitted from one generation to the next
● kinship ­ members of a social group define themselves
● participant observation ­ living with people to understand their culture
Psychology ­ studies the behaviour, mental processes, and personality of humans. What motivates individuals to behave in a certain way. There are 4 main fields of psychology:
● Experimental (conducts experiments on how humans behave)
● Developmental (how people grow)
● Social (how behaviour is influenced by groups
● Applied/Clinical (utilizes training to help people such as social workers, etc)
Questions psychologists may ask include:
● What causes mental illness?
● Is personality inherited or learned?
Fields of study include:
● Psychoanalysis ­ inner experiences of the mind. Used on patients who suffer from severe anxieties and tension.
● Behavioural ­ analysis principles of behaviour because it is observable, yet it can be studied more objectively than the visible mind.
● Cognitive ­ perception, learning, memory, reasoning. studies how people deal with their environment, learn and remember things, make decisions, and examines how values and beliefs play a role in our lives.

Sociology ­ studies the social behaviour and how people interact, how it shapes our world.
Areas include:
● gender roles
● stereotyping
● crime rates
● poverty
● peer pressure.
Questions sociologists may ask include:
● Is our education system successful?
● Why are there so many gangs?
Fields of study include:
● Functionalism ­ society is studied like the human body; as each organ in the body performs a function, so does each institution in society. All are protected when all parts work together and do their jobs.
● Conflict theory ­ studies social patterns. Produce goods to meet the needs and wants.
Groups compete and struggle for resources and power. Social class form ­ some have power over others
● Symbolic interactionism ­ small scale patterns in everyday interactions. Humans have the ability to reason, we make the rules and learn what roles to play based on our audience or society. Hall of Fame (Anthropology)
Leakey Family
● Primates ­ a member of the mammal group with the most developed brains such as a human, ape, gorilla, etc.
● Experimented with stone aged tools to discover how our ancestors hunted for food.
Jane Goodall
● worked with the leakey family
● was forced to work with chimpanzees
● her research showed what the human kingdom might have been like thousands of years ago.

Hall of fame (Psychology)
Ivan Pavlov
● Studied conditioned behaviour
● unconditioned stimulus (hot food on a cold day)
● unconditioned response (shivering when cold)
● conditioned stimulus (sound of a can opener)
● conditioned response (getting excited before meeting an old friend)
Sigmund Freud
● developed psychoanalysis
● conscious mind (memories we can recall)
● unconscious mind (memories that we cannot recall)
● unconscious mind is more influence on human behaviour
● free association (when a therapist enters a patient's unconscious mind)
● ID/Contacts (contains all the primitive parts of our personality)
● Superego (urges us to do good things)
● Ego (doing right from wrong)
● Defense mechanism (mind uses to deal with anxiety)
● psychiatry (treatment of mental disorders) Hall of fame