Antihistamines are mainly used to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever), urticaria (hives), pruritus (itching) and insect bites and stings. They may also be used to help reduce nausea and vomiting, and in the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis - a severe allergic reaction. The side-effects most commonly experienced are minor. In addition, Antihistamines are a class (group) of drugs used in the treatment of allergic disorders and some other conditions. They include: acrivastine, cetirizine, desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, loratadine, mizolastine, alimemazine, chlorphenamine, clemastine, cyproheptadine, hydroxyzine, ketotifen and promethazine. These also come in various different brand names, Kaplan (2013, May 9). They can be taken as tablets, syrups or nasal sprays, and some come in droplet form for use in the eyes. This case study will discuss the application of promethazine on a patient who is suffering from hives. It will also emphasize on different uses, contraindication, and the side effects of promethazine. Lorraine Mark is a 24 years female from Kerema in the Gulf province. Married to Freddy Kamaho from Bulolo in the Morobe province and had three children. Her husband is a warder and they reside at Bomana correctional services institute in Port Moresby. On 18th April 2013, she showed up at Pacific Adventist day clinic with the complaint of hives all over her body. It was first felt itchy and she began to scratch it without ceasing. It was started 3/7 ago and she can’t tolerate with it anymore. After viewing her history of past illness the nurse found out that she had previously treated with urticaria. She was previously prescribed with promethazine (Phenergan) and it helps her to recover from the same condition as at present. However, she did not complete all the doses as prescribed by the nurse earlier. She stopped taking it when all the hives from her body was disappeared and though she was fully recovered. The nurse prescribes the same medicine and warned her not to skip or deliberately ignore the medicine when the hives disappeared from her body. She informed her of the contraindication and expected effects which the patient may encounter during the administration of the medicine. She told her to take Phenergan tablets 25mg orally for as long the symptoms persist, or as normally recommended by doctor but for no longer than 10 consecutive days. She was given 24 tablets (3/24) for the next seven days. During the administration of the medicine at home she often encountered sleepiness, dizziness and blurred vision. For that reason she sometimes skips the doses as scheduled by the nurse. On her second visit to the clinic she was told not to take double dose to make up the missed dose but to continue with the remaining dose. She also informed her of the adverse effects when taking this medicine. After three days he was fully recovered and all the hives were disappeared. Phenergan can be used in many ways to treat different allergic reactions to food, chemicals, dust, insect bite, and pollen of the flower. These allergic reactions can cause the body to produce chemical called histamine. The release of histamine causes allergic symptoms which can include sneezing, runny or watery eyes and nose, itching and skin rashes. Antihistamines like Phenergan reduce the effects of histamine and help to relieve these symptoms. In addition, Phenergan can also be used to treat sickness, vertigo (loss of balance or dizziness), and to prevent travel sickness. Because Phenergan causes drowsiness, it may also occasionally be used for short periods of time to treat insomnia (difficulty sleeping) in adults, Powell and Clark (2013, May 4). The different forms of Phenergan were stored at different temperature based on the route of admission. Tablets, syrup and injection should be stored at room temperature, between 15 oC to 25 oC (68 F to 77 F).
Quetiapine is another drug that serves as an antagonizer of serotonin and dopamine along with being an antagonist to histamine and adrenergic receptors. Histamine causes capillary dilation and constriction of smooth muscle in the bronchials and decreases overall blood pressure. This drug decreases delusions, hallucinations, and depression by blocking the action of histamine and the flight or fight response. Clozapine binds specifically to dopamine receptors but also has anti cholinergic blocking activity…
caffeine, terminator- bronchodilator, SE-central nervous system stimulation, dysrhythmias- tachycardia, diuretic, contra- dysrhythmias primary concern, taking topically through inhaler i.e. theiothylline
4. Glucocorticoids anti-inflammatory, not going to terminate as occurring but helps prevent, giving through inhaler, systemic side effects- Cushing’s syndrome, increased blood sugar, increased risk for oral infections, contra- if you have an active infection it might suppress…
more severe. In this case it has developed overtime due to his intake of alcohol from beer drinking. Factors that may have led to gastritis can be the result of an imbalance of the gastric juices resulting from prolonged use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). But in his case it is the overindulgence in alcohol that caused erosion from the stomach lining. Therefore, chronic gastritis puts people at risk for peptic ulcer disease and some will develop atrophic gastritis which will eventually…
properties, identification, effect and treatment of poisons, including adverse medication reactions
Organ responsible for drug elimination: Kidneys
Organ used for metabolism: Liver
Polypharmacy: A client who is on 5 or more medications
Medications Interaction: Medications interact with other drugs
Factors that create change when it comes to administration of drugs:
➢ New technologies
➢ Popularity of medicines
➢ New uses
➢ Improves understanding of diseases…
throat (only when taken by an inhaler). There are also other general ones, which you can get by taking the medicine any of the ways, these are:
Feeling a bit shaky, a headache, a rapid or uneven heart beat, flushing, restlessness and dizziness.
Amoxicillin- Amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic, that helps fight…
Functions of Blood
Blood, a liquid connective tissue, has three general functions:
Transportation. Blood transports oxygen from the lungs to cells throughout the body and carbon dioxide from body cells to the lungs for exhalation. It also carries nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract to body cells, hormones from endocrine glands to other body cells, and heat and waste products away from cells to various organs for elimination from the body.
Regulation. Circulating blood…
* It defines 3 categories of medicine
* (PO) prescription only medicines
* (P) pharmacy only
* (GSL) general sales list
* MISUSE OF DRUGS ACT 1971
* This legislation gives cover and control for three different classed drugs
Which are A,B,C. It is against the law to be in possession of a controlled drug that is not prescribed for you, or with intent to supply.
* DATA PROTECTION ACT 1998
* Is a law which governs the processing of personal data held on living…
antibacterials and antivirals.
Emodin was found to be an anti-cancer agent, with a selective activity towards neuroectodermal tumors
Aloe Vera contains 4 plant steroids: cholesterol, campesterol, beta-sisosterol and lupeol. They have anti-inflammatory action and lupeol also has antiseptic and analgesic properties.
The gel exudate contains Auxins and Gibberellins hormones, that contribute in wound healing and they also possess anti-inflammatory action.
It provides 20 of…
PCB Fall 14 Study guide
1) Which T-cells decline in an HIV patient? What is the significant # of those cells for a transition to AIDs?
a. Massive reduction in CD4 T cells
b. Less than 200 CD4 T cells per ul.
c. HIV doesn't kill patient but cell mediated immunity is compromised and patient can die from infection
2) Know gp 120 and 41 and what they do? What is the precursor polypeptide these are created from?
a. One nucleocapsid protein is a protease used to cleave gp41 and gp120…
facts from your head onto a blank sheet provided by the testing center. We also
recommend reading the glossary as a last-minute cram tool before entering the testing center. Good luck.
. Protein: 6.2–8.1 g/dL
. Albumin: 3.4–5.0 g/dL
16. Therapeutic drug levels
. Digoxin: 0.5–2.0 ng/ml
. Lithium: 0.8–1.5 mEq/L
. Dilantin: 10–20 mcg/dL
. Theophylline: 10–20 mcg/dL
17. Vital signs (adult)
GENERAL TEST INFORMATION
1. Minimum 75/maximum 265—The maximum time allotted
for the test is 6 hours. Don’t get…