The elements of national interest and the factors that shape the national interest: secession and territorial integrity, economic development, creation of a harmonious society, ‘peaceful rise’, perceptions of China’s regional role •
Types and forms of power: hard, soft, military, economic, political, diplomatic and cultural •
The main foreign policy instruments used to try to achieve differing national interests: – diplomacy: ‘panda diplomacy’, ‘chequebook’ diplomacy, use of veto in the UN, public denouncements – trade: trade patterns, ‘Three-Direct Links’ policy, investment – aid: overseas development assistance patterns, contribution to UN missions and humanitarian bodies – military power: troop deployments, militarisation, strategic placement of armaments
Sovereignty – Legitimate or widely recognised ability to exercise effective control of a territory within recognised borders. Primary organising principle of global politics, which provides states with the authority to represent their territorial entity within the international community. State sovereignty can be challenged internally (for example, secessionist groups) or externally (for example, one state invades another).
National Interest - Used as an all-embracing concept to justify policy preferences and actions, and includes the goals or objectives of foreign policy
Power – The ability of one global actor to influence the actions of another global actor. Power can be exercised in a range of types and forms.
Soft Power - The ability to shape the actions of other global actors most commonly exercised through diplomacy, culture, policies and history. A term first coined by Joseph Nye.
Hard Power - Power exercised through coercion, or threatened acts of coercion, to influence the actions of other global actors. Most commonly exercised via military forms.
Nation – Groups of people claiming common bonds based on culture, language and history. Some nations have their own state, such as the Japanese, whilst others want their own state…