Ap Bio Essay

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Chapter 7 Vocabulary List & Study Guide

Objectives: 1. Identify cell organelles and explain their functions. 2. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 3. Describe the endomembrane systems within cells. Vocabulary: Magnification- the ratio of an objects image to its real size Resolving Power- an assessment of the clearness of an image (the least distance that two points can be divided but still be noticeable) Light Microscope- an ocular instrument with lenses that bend visible light to amplify images of specimens Scanning Electron Microscope- analyzes substance by looking at the electrons that bounce off the surface of the substance
Transmission Electron Microscope- uses electron beams instead of light beams; can resolve objects only 0.2 nms apart
Cell Fractionation- the disturbance of a cell and disjointing of its organelles by centrifugation
Cytoplasm- the interior contents of the cell minus the nucleus (bordered by the plasma membrane)
Cytosol- the part of the cytoplasm that is a semi fluid (gel like)
Nucleus- the chromosome containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell (largest organelle in a eukaryote, it is surrounded by cytoplasmic filaments in several cells)
Nuclear Envelope- the membrane in eukaryotes that encloses the nucleus (two phospholipid bilayers) sorting out it from the cytoplasm
Chromatin- the compound of DNA and proteins that make up a eukaryotic chromosome (chromatin exists as a mass of long, thin fibers that can’t be seen using a light microscope if the cell isn’t dividing)
Chromosome- a thin long, gene holding structure inside the nucleus, every chromosome consists of a (chromatin)
Nucleolus- dark region of the nucleus where synthesis of ribosomal RNA takes place
Ribosome- a nonmembranous organelle where protein synthesis takes place (makes proteins); (consist of two subunits that only join when attached to messenger RNA)
Endomembrane System- the compilation of membranes within and around a eukaryotic cell (either in physical contact or connected by the transport of membranous vesicles)
Vesicles- sacs made of membrane
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - an massive membranous network in eukaryotic cells continuing with the outer nuclear membrane (composed of rough and smooth regions)
Smooth ER- the part of the endoplasmic reticulum that doesn’t contain ribosomes Rough ER- the part of the endoplasmic reticulum that contains ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus- an organelle in eukaryotic cells made up of stacks of flat membranous sacs; it is the organelle active in synthesis, sorting and secretion of cell products
Cis Face- front pole of Golgi stack, receiving end; located near the ER
Trans Face- back pole of Golgi stack, discharging end; substances sent into secretory vesicles
Lysosomes- a membrane enclosed bag of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells (it is a digestive organelle)
Phagocytosis- a type of process of cellular absorption involving large, particulate substances (done by protists and amoebas)
Macrophages- an amoeboid cell that travels throughout tissue fibers, disposing of bacteria and dead cells utilizing phagocytosis
Food Vacuole- a membranous sac created by phagocytosis (fuses with lysosomes to get digested)
Contractile Vacuole- a membranous sac that gets excess water out of the cell
Central Vacuole- a membranous sac in a older plant cell with different roles in reproduction, growth, and development (its functions as storage, and breaks down waste products)
Tonoplast- a membrane that surrounds the central vacuole in a plant cell (separating the cytosol from the cell sap (solution inside vacuole))

Peroxisome- a organelle with numerous functions, it contains enzymes that transmit hydrogen from assorted substrates to oxygen (producing hydrogen peroxide)
Mitochondria- an organelle in eukaryotic cells that functions as the location of cellular respiration (most ATP is…