Essay on Ap bio chapter 46

Submitted By ouyan062
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Pages: 6

• When it comes to trading relationships with other countries we don’t use treaty arrangement anymore we tend to use the legislative executive agreement this is because the senate is to split up. You don’t need a 2/3 from arrangement from the senate you just need a simply majority in the senate and the House of Representatives. The senate is too split up this helps pass more legislation.
• Fillabuster- the whole process of the senate is closed off. The speaker will try to talk it down to death usually works in a group.
• How do you break a fillabuster-under rule 17 of the senate rules you need to circulate a petition that needs to be signed by 16 senators and then the majority leader has a number of days to work out a deal then the floor leader will take a vote of 60 people vote in favor of ending it then it is dead. Then no one senator can talk about the legislation for 1 hour.
• Why is the senate is inefficient?- because it was designed to be that way so that the states were represented and that any one senator can stop the entire process because is the senate minority power right rule and in the HOR the majority power rule. The HOR is more efficient .The whole government is designed to be ineffective to maximize individual liberties.
• Defensive marriage act-this says that a state has by constitutional authority of same sex marriage and a couple moves then that new state does not need to uphold the previous state’s laws. Obama administration says they are not going to enforce this new act because they believe it is unconstitutional. Article 4 section 1 where each state must also follow other states
• The pardon power:
1. Can use it except in cases of impeachment
2. During the last year is usually when they will use their pardon power.
3. Every chief executive officer of every government has the power to pardon.
4. Pardon-executive act of grace. Unearned executive assistance. It releases you from punishment. Blocks out the existence of guilt, the person is absolute innocent; it is as if you have never commented the crime. All your civil liberties are returned to you.
• The house is set by the speaker of the house and the rules committee.
• The senate is set by a majority leader.
• Reprieve-the withdrawing of the sentencing of death for an interval time. The execution is suspended
• Commutation-change the punishment itself. Instead of sentencing a person to death make the sentence to life in prison.
• The president has all three powers
1. Power to commutate the sentence
2. Power to reprieve the sentence
3. Power to pardon
• Nixon was pardoned by ford. Was fords pardon constitutional?
• Bill Clinton- he pardoned 250 hardcore criminals. Agreed to pardon someone of which hilerys brother accepted money to help pardon.
• What are the standards that the president will use to pardon someone- Anything they want!!!
• Fed74-the president has absolute power to pardon under any circumstances under any standards. One man show, congress but out. Also can use to regulate rebels back into society.


• The office of the pardon attorney-office of 12 lawyers, they receive request for pardons and then they will make suggestion to the president on which people to pardon or not to pardon.
• Nixon vs US 1974-
• Exectite privilege- internal operation and communications and there for don’t not need to be shown to the public and the court can’t look at them.
• Hailey Barbor-governor of Mississippi, pardons hardcore people (150) that work for him at one point.
• Governors can only pardon people in their state also depending on the state each state has different requirement for pardons. Mississippi-pardon by one man….Minnesota-governor has to work with 2 other people to pardon someone.
• President pardon on federal level. Governor pardon on state level
• Nixon vs. the United States (1974)-Nixon used executive privilege said that the public doesn’t need to know about this and that the courts can’t…