Where were the gray wolves reintroduced? / Who supported the reintroduction?
1. Yellowstone National Park ecosystem
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) supported the reintroduction including the United States Congress.
Ecological services of the forest
1. Support energy flow and chemical cycling
2. Reduce soil erosion
3. Absorb and release water
4. Purify water and air
5. Influence local and regional climate
6. Store atmospheric carbon
7. Provide numerous wildlife habitats
Economic services of the forest
1. Fuel wood
3. Pulp to make paper
5. Livestock grazing
Most common use of trees worldwide
1. Fuel wood
Types of forests / Types of tree harvesting / Effects of each
1. Three major types based on their age and structure:
a. Old-growth forest: 22%
An uncut or regenerated forest that has not been seriously disturbed by human activities or natural disasters for at least several hundred years.
b. Second-growth forest: 63%
A stand of trees resulting from natural secondary ecological succession.
c. Tree plantation (Tree farm): 5%
Site planted with one or only a few tree species in an even-aged stand.
2. Three types of tree harvesting:
a. Selective cutting Cutting of intermediate-aged, mature, or diseased trees in an uneven-aged forest stand, either singly or in small groups.
Removal of all trees in that area
c. Strip cutting
Involves clear-cutting a strip of trees along the contour of the land, with the corridor narrow enough to allow natural regeneration within a few years.
What is Certified Sustainably Grown Timber ensure?
1. Ensure that cutting has not exceeded long-term forest regeneration
Types and effects of forest fires
1. Three types of fires
a. Surface fires
Usually burn undergrowth and leaf litter on the forest floor.
Burn away flammable ground material and help prevent more destructive fires.
Also release valuable mineral nutrients, release seeds from the cones of lodge pole pines, stimulate the germination of certain tree seed, and help control pathogens and insects.
b. Crown fires
May start on the ground but eventually burn whole trees and leap form treetop to treetop.
c. Ground fires
Go underground and burn partially decayed leaves or peat and are common in northern pear bogs.
What does the burning of forests produce?
1. Burn away flammable ground material and help prevent more destructive fires.
2. Also release valuable mineral nutrients, release seeds from the cones of lodge pole pines, stimulate the germination of certain tree seed, and help control pathogens and insects
What happens after the burning of tropical rainforests in the Amazon?
1. Accounts for 3/4th of Brazil’s greenhouse gas emission
What is the most widely used method for sustainable management of rangeland? / What is rangeland?
1. The most widely used method is to control the number of grazing animals and the duration of their grazing in a given area so the carrying capacity of the area is not exceeded.
2. Rangeland - Unfenced grasslands in temperate and tropical climates that supply forage or vegetation for grazing and browsing animals.
How many national parks worldwide?
1. More than 1,100 national parks larger than 4 square mile.
What is the biggest problem facing U.S. national parks today?
1. The biggest problem facing United States national parks today is popularity.
What % of Earth’s wilderness areas are strictly protected?
1. 12% of the earth’s land area is strictly protected.
What % of Earth’s land should be protected in order to preserve biodiversity?
1. Conservation biologists call for a full protection of at least 20% of the earth’s land area to preserve biodiversity.
Buffer zone concept to preserving land (fig. 10-25)
Each reserve contains a protected inner core surrounded by two buffer zones that local