The responses to the Catholic Church in the 16th century to the challenges posed by the Lutheran Reformation were to strengthen Catholic doctrine, prevent the further spread of the ideas of the Protestants, and the enlightenment of education. One of the main responses the Catholic Church posed was to strengthen Catholic doctrine. Many Catholic reformers were aware of the problems and abuses with the Church, which made Martin Luther leave and write his 95 theses. But, instead of breaking spiritual and doctrinal authority, they continued with their attempts to change the Church from within. To do so, the Church studied and readjusted their doctrines according to the Council of Trent, which met for more than twenty years in starting in 1545. The Council of Trent made it where Church doctrine was modified and unified. Many of the corrupt practices of the Church were abolished and the Pope was given back full and final authority in all religious and Church matters. The review and enunciation of doctrine included the justification of faith by good works, and the reform of some practices included the curtailing of indulgences. The Council of Trent continued to reform the Church until 1563. Besides the Council of Trent, Baroque art was used to engage the viewer in the religious experience by emphasizing the importance of the Church and Catholic doctrine through religious and emotional imagery. Because of the strengthening of Catholic doctrine the Inquisition in Rome and Spain grew more powerful and stronger as well. Wherever Catholic jurisdiction prevailed, Protestants were subject to imprisonment and death. Another response the Catholic Church made to was to prevent the further spread of the ideas of the Protestants. One way that prevented the further spread of the ideas was new religious orders that brought forth many Catholics and the spread of the Catholic doctrine. Ignatius Loyola was the man who founded the Society of Jesus, with the purpose of preaching and changing peoples views of the Church. They became know as the Jesuits and gave the people hope. The Jesuits believed that it was essential for Catholics to stick together and they believed the Protestant theology was flawed. The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 was established because Charles V was losing revenue cause of Luther, and it stated where the region, his the religion. To stop Luther the Edict of Worms was signed in agreement with Charles V and the Pope in 1521 placing Luther under the ban of the empire. The Church had strong control south of the Alps where Catholics retained control over government, Protestants became in time small minorities. The French Civil War was a war of religion. The Guise family led the Catholics in the North and the Bourbon family led the Huguenots in the South. At the end, Henry of Navarre defeated the Catholic League and became Henry IV of France. He converted to Catholicism to compromise and make peace. He was supposed to be married to the daughter of a Medici, but the St. Bartholomew’s
Politics from the Medieval ages to the Renaissance drastically changed as life became more Humanist. Due to life in the renaissance being more focused on the individual, it had a drastic effect on politics. Politics became more diplomatic, there were less feuds between the nobility and Monarchs strived to take away power from the nobility in attempts to make themselves stronger, reflecting the individualistic values at the time. This change to more diplomatic politics is even reflected in our own…
August 11, 2014
AP European History
A World Lit Only By Fire by William Manchester presented some of the most important
events in human history that contributed to how the world is in today time. William Manchester's
intent was to demonstrate the significance of the early 16th century. To accomplish this,
Manchester had to clearly show the state of the world before the 16th century.
The first portion of the book The Medieval Mind gave readers a look at how times in the…
Analyze how the Bubonic Plague put an end to the medieval culture and hastened the development of the renaissance.
Beginning in 1347, a deadly plague took down a third of Europe’s population while giving rise to a rebirth of the continent. The Bubonic Plague changed the economic and social order of the medieval period due to the loss of so many lives, bringing the medieval period to a halt as a time of renaissance was upon Europe. These changes in Europe were effects from the changes in intellect…
Analysis of Nobility in France-Sword versus Robe Nobles
Nobility seems like quite a concrete concept, a title is earned by familial lineage and cemented in combat for the good of his majesty the king. Within France’s social dynamic this seemed to be the case, until the power of monetary persuasion prevailed over birthright. The social hierarchy of France changed from the late sixteenth century to the late eighteenth century, when the French Monarchy defined nobility based on economics rather than…
Discuss the political development of Italy during the Renaissance. What new political practices (statecraft) did the Italians contribute to Europe?
- Machiavelli believed it was better to be feared than loved, which meant he should abandon morals to stay in power. In his The Prince, he says Cesare Borgia is a good ruler, although he uses extreme measures to stay in power. Political activity shouldn’t be restricted by morals.
- Machiavelli said there was a gap between how Christianity…
1. cartel: a big group of individual commercial enterprises who work together to keep the prices steady and the competition down.
2. economic depression: when the economy such as agricultural products and profits form business cycles are falling and the economy suffers greatly.
3. la belle époque: an age of prosperity in European civilization
4. anarchism: a belief or theory that state the government and social institutions are not needed…
In 13 and fourteenth century Mongols created a epire from Russia to China
It brought stability to the Eurasian trade routes
Also made way for the spread of flea infested rats carrying bubonic plague to east Asia and Europe
This brought black death in the mid 14th century which was known as one of the worst natural disasters of all time
Few were left untouched even monasteries were hit by the plague
All the animals died as well
The prices dropped
People were afraid of death so very few took care…
DBQ: Peasants’ revolts
From 1524 to 1526 peasant revolts were occurring throughout the German states. Many causes and responses brewed out of these revolts. One cause is from religion issues (1,3,6) , Luther’s idea of equality. Another cause is the peasant gaining power (2,8,9). As a result of these causes came out response, the most common response was riots and chaos (5,11,7). These revolts would end in thousands of rebel deaths and others are also killed.
In the early 1500s religious reforms…
During the late fifteenth through the seventeenth centuries, thousands of individuals were persecuted as witches. It was thought that these individuals practiced black magic and performed evil deeds, the deeds of the devil. This all happened during a time of great change in Europe, during the time of the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, and the consolidation of national governments. They were persecuted for a variety of reasons, but three major ones were…
Consolidation of National Gov./ Age of Absolutism
1.) During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, states in northern Europe organized themselves in order to dominate European politics and become great powers.
2.) These nations believed different ways of government such as a parliamentary monarchy in England, or political absolutism, in France.
3.) These changes in politics created major powers by the mid-eighteenth century, these powers being: Great Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia…