Discuss the political development of Italy during the Renaissance. What new political practices (statecraft) did the Italians contribute to Europe?
- Machiavelli believed it was better to be feared than loved, which meant he should abandon morals to stay in power. In his The Prince, he says Cesare Borgia is a good ruler, although he uses extreme measures to stay in power. Political activity shouldn’t be restricted by morals.
- Machiavelli said there was a gap between how Christianity wants us to behave and how we do. Therefore rulers shouldn’t acknowledge the individual when making decisions. Man is fickle and greedy by nature.
- Erasmus believed the opposite, that man by nature is good and should look out for the welfare of others even if they have to sacrifice part of their country to a stronger power. He’s all about the individual.
- Pico della Mirandola believed in the unlimited potential of man, as stated in the oration of the dignity of man.
Examine the distinctive characteristics of Renaissance art. How does the art of this period reflect the political and social events of the period?
- Glorification of Humans: (Michelangelo’s and Donatello’s Davids) based on Petrarch (Father of Italian Renaissance Humanism) ideas that the Renaissance was a time to emerge from the darkness of the Middle Ages. People had new hope that they could accomplish anything.
- Emphasis on Education: (Raphael’s School of Athens with people like Ptolemy, Plato and Aristotle) based on Humanism, the emerging emphasis on the study of Greek and Roman literature. With education, people could rise to new intelligence.
- Use of Christianity: (There’s a lot here: Da Vinci’s Last Supper, Masaccio’s Tribute Money, and Botticelli’s Primavera...) based on the rise of Neoplatonism, or the emphasis on Plato’s ideas of Christianity and a hierarchy of plants to god... which you will notice in Primavera, which not only has the trinity of Christianity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit,) but also has plants at the bottom, people in the middle, and god-like angels on top.
(Important: Northern Europe = Details in paintings, Italy = Perspective and Proportions)
Compare the Lutheran Reformation and the Catholic (counter) Reformation of the 16th century regarding reform of religious doctrine and practices.
- Luther’s 95 Theses was the first break from Catholicism, which was a stand against indulgences.Catholics = liked people to pay for guaranteed salvation. Protestantism denounced Pope’s authority to give salvation. Catholics liked pope. Belief in consubstantiation, which is bread and wine don’t literally turn into body and blood of Jesus. Catholics = transubstantiation.
- King Henry VIII: Wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon because she couldn’t produce a male heir, so he abolished papal authority in England and married Anne, who also had a baby girl... He had six wives, and one male offspring.
Act of Supremacy: declared the King (Henry VIII) was the Supreme head of the church of England. Plus the Treason Act said if you argue against this, we will kill you. Thomas More killed for doing just that.
Queen Mary: Burned Protestant “Heretics,” creating the name “Bloody Mary.” Wanted restoration of Catholicism, but people became more protestant. This is just extra background. Don’t use this if you don’t need to.
- Jesuits helped bring people back to Catholic church. Revival of Catholicism: Jesuits made schools (seen as good), proclaimed their faith to non-christians, and fighting protestantism with the catholic banner. Missionaries succeeded in poland, germany, and east europe. Pope Paul III summoned the council of trent, which was to compromise beliefs with protestants- conservative catholics won, changing nothing but the music in the service. Pope Paul IV was elected, and became the “first true pope of the catholic counter-reformation.” Used Spanish Inquisition so even the liberal