1. The founder of the Mughal dynasty was Babur (
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur
2. Akbar tried to achieve cultural harmony (through religious tolerance and his own religion). He conquered all of India (Gujarat, Bengal, Vijayanagara [Hindu kingdom]), except for its southern tip. He was the first to govern successfully.
3. The Mughals utilized gunpowder weaponry, including firearms, cannons, and artillery.
The Mughals also built architectural structures such as the Peacock Throne and the Taj
Mahal, using the wealth they gained.
4. Akbar established administration with ministries governing various provinces. For the most part the Mughals governed indirectly over India. They probably collected taxes and tribute, and did not established a reform of customs (direct control).
5. The causes of Mughal decline are controversial.
The devoutly Muslim ruler Aurangzeb revoked Hindu privileges, destroyed their temples, and imposed taxes solely on them. This led to revolts that damaged the empire.
Mr. Zara’s Answer:
The Mughals depended on a good leader. Aurangzeb’s sons fought years of civil war for succession, leading to degradation of control due to the lack of a leader.
(money problem, not religion)
1. Shah Abbas was the most notable ruler in reviving the Safavid empire after the disaster at the Battle of Chaldiran. He changed the capital, reformed administrative and military institutions, gave land grants to the qizilbash/military, and encouraged trade. With a stronger military he led the Safavids to conquer northwestern Iran, the Caucasus, and
Mesopotamia. They also harassed the Ottomans.
2. The Ottomans and Safavids were in intermittent conflict because of different kinds of
Muslim (Sunni vs Shiites). However they likely fought for land, not for religion.
3. After a horrible defeat at the battle of Chaldiran due to refusing to use gunpowder, the
Safavids recovered through increasing gunpowder use, recruiting “slaves of the royal household” into the army, and seeking European assistance.
4. The capital of the Safavid Empire was Isfahan.
Ottoman Empire/Timor the Lame
1. The Ottoman Empire was created by Osman Bey along with a band of seminomadic Turks who inhabiting northwestern Anatolia in the 13th century. They sought to be Muslim warriors, or “ghazis.” They lived on the borders on the Byzantine empire, giving them an easy opportunity to initiate holy war.
2. Osman was the founder of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans initially conquered the
Anatolian city of Bursa, Gallipoli (first presence in Europe), and Adrianople (renamed
3. Timor the Lame (Tamerlane) was a conqueror (not an administrator) who arose from the vacancy of fleeing Mongols in Persia. He and his heirs maintained control from Persia to
Afghanistan for a century. They fought the Ottomans and delayed their Byzantine expansion
by defeating them and capturing their sultan. The Ottomans later recovered when
Tamerlane’s death caused a weakening of his forces.
4. Janissaries were a slave military population incorporated into the Ottoman army through an institution called devshirme, in which the Balkan Christians were required to contribute young boys to receive special training for administration or the army, learn Turkish, and convert to Islam.
5. Mehmed II successfully conquered Constantinople due to his large army and his use of cannons that blew down the walls of the city.
6. Ottomans conquered Constantinople and gained tremendous benefits in that its location and illustrious heritage paved way