1. Divided government is when the congress and the executive branch are controlled by opposite parties such as the executive branch may be controlled by the Democrat party and the congressional branch may be controlled by the republican party so both branches are divided due to party opposition. Since the President nominates a candidate for the supreme judge in the supreme court and the Senate confirms it, there would be a delay in confirmation of federal court nominees since president would most likely choose a support a candidate who reflects the president’s parties views therefore opposing the congressional parties view so this would cause a delay in the confirmation.
2. Congressional oversight is congress supervising the executive branch and its U.S. federal agencies as Congress reviews, monitors and supervises federal agencies and its actions therefore Congress holds hearing for review of an executive agencies activities and supervises those agencies.
3. Voting patterns of the Congress correlate with their political party affiliation as member would share the same beliefs as their party and support similar ideas therefore a member of the congress who is republican will most likely vote for a republican leader.
4. The constitution doesn't expressly prohibit sex discrimination in employment but in 14th
Amendment, the congress doesn't mention the equal protection clause which states that no person shall be taken away from the constitution given rights therefore laws must apply to everyone equally. Slavery is expressly prohibited in the 5th Amendment, cruel and unusual punishment is also expressly prohibited in the 8th amendment and unreasonable search and seizure is expressly prohibited in the 9th amendment.
5. Gerrymandering is manipulating of district lines to control districts in order to favor one political party over another. Gerrymandering consists of cracking and packing. Cracking consists of spreading voters of a particular party so they don't have a large voting bloc.
Packing consists of redrawing of district lines to concentrate one political party’s voters into a single district to reduce their influence on other districts.
6. Regulatory agencies make decisions independently so therefore they don't consult with the regulated industry before making any decisions.
7. Americans with Disabilities Act is an example of a federal mandate as Americans with
Disabilities is a federal law enforced by the Federal court. State supremacy refers to supremacy clause which mentions that constitution us the “supreme law of the land” therefore Americans with Disabilities Act is not an example of state supremacy. Horizontal
Federalism is when state governments need to interact with one another in order to regulate policies therefore Americans with Disabilities act is not horizontal federalism. Affirmative
Action is policy of favoring the disadvantaged group who suffer from discrimination so
Americans with disabilities act is not Affirmative action either. Dual Federalism is when both the federal and state governments work together and the power is clearly divided between the state and the federal government therefore Americans with Disabilities is a federal mandate as it protects disabled americans from discrimination by enforcing the law through the federal government.
8. Separation of powers is the idea of vesting the legislative, executive and judicial powers of government in separate bodies therefore when independent regulatory agencies make rules, enforce those rules and adjudicate disputes arising under those rules, they risk violating constitutional concept of separation of powers as they use legislative, executive and judicial powers without separating powers.
9. Separation of students by race even in equally good schools is seen as unconstitutional since the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment requires that states treat all citizens alike, regardless of race and therefore