Ap Gov Review

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AP Gov Review

John Locke- 17th century English philosopher who believed people live in a state of nature, have natural rights and that the only type of valid government is one built on consent of governed
Natural rights- life, liberty, property
State of nature- people are generally self-centered but are capable of being rational
Social contract- an agreement between government and citizens; idea that if gov fails to live up to standard, breaks contract then people can dissolve the gov.
Popular Sovereignty- people have the say

Thomas Jefferson – greatly influenced by Locke; changed rights to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness; furthered idea of natural rights- it was gov.’s job to secure these and if it failed people had right to form new gov.; consent of govern was what made gov. legitimate.

Articles of Confederation- the 1st document to govern of the United States, adopted by Congress in 177 and enacted in 1781; established a national legislature (Continental Congress) but left states with most power;

nation was called League of Friendship- not united as a country- Unsuccessful!

- after immediate need for unification during Civil War, country went into chaos- states quarreled and because there central gov was so weak it couldn’t settle disputes regulate commerce- nation in horrible debt - Positive impact for middle and low class- states trading created small businesses gave rise to previously powerless low class - turning point in Massachusetts, farmers in debt rebel

Central gov was severely limited

Central gov consisted only of congress in which all states were equally represented
No executive or judicial branches
Central gov couldn’t levy taxes, only request states for money
Couldn’t regulate interstate commerce
No law enforcing powers granted to Congress
No process for amending Articles

States held majority of Power

Each state had different currency
Could tax one another
Could engage in foreign trade
Had all power not specifically granted to Congress

Shay’s Rebellion- a series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings
Increased awareness of need for a strong central gov.
Elites feared people taking law into their own hands and the central gov’s inability to properly organized military forces to curb rebellions

Constitution- document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that set forth the institutional structure of the U.S. gov. and the tasks these institutions would perform
Bill of Rights- agreement that allowed the ratification of the Constitution; this compromise between Antifederalists and Federalists guaranteed the addition of 10 amendments that would protect individual freedoms and rights; ratified in 1791. Federalists
Supported U.S. Constitution
Opposed Constitution
- Large landowners, wealthy
-Weak state govs, strong nat. gov
-Indirect election
-government by elite
-small farmers, laborers
-strong state gov, weak nat. gov
-direct election of officials
-rule by common man

Federalist Papers #10- written by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison and John Jayy; argued philosophical foundations of U.S. gov. ; argued separation of powers and federalism check the growth of tyranny and also guard against dangers of direct democracy (controlled by majority only)

Constitutional Convention- 1787 meeting of all state reps in Philly. Originally going to amend Articles but instead got rid of them
Great Compromise- called for one house in which each state would have an equal vote (the Senate) and a second house (the House of Representatives) in which representation would be based on population. Created a bicameral legislature
Senate would be chosen by state legislature
House of Reps. Would be directly elected by public (eligibility of whom could vote left up to the states)
3/5 Compromise- allowed southern states