Essay on AP Government and Politics

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AP Government and Politics Study Guide
1st Amendment
Civil Liberties: Religion, Speech, Assembly & Petition
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or the press, or the right of the people to peacefully to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.”
Establishment Clause: “make no law respecting the establishment of …”
Free Exercise Clause: “or prohibiting the free exercise of…”
Other clauses: Free Speech Clause, Free Press Clause, Free Assembly Clause & Petition Clause
2nd Amendment
Right to bear arms.
3rd Amendment
No quartering of soldiers.
4th Amendment
Searches and Seizures
5th Amendment
Right to due process of law (along with the Fourteenth Amendment) , freedom from self-incrimination, double jeopardy.
6th Amendment
Fair and speedy trial; right to counsel
7th Amendment
Right of trial by jury in civil cases.
8th Amendment
Freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishments.
9th Amendment
Other rights of the people.
10th Amendment
Powers reserved to the states.
11th Amendment
12th Amendment
Max 2 terms in office for president, or 10 years, reaction to FDR
13th Amendment
Abolished Slavery.
14th Amendment
Clauses: privilege & immunities, Due process, equal protection, Citizenship Clause
Incorporation Doctrine – Legal concept which the S.C. nationalized the Bill of Rights by make most of the provisions applicable to the states. (Not III, VII, X)
“Nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without the due process of the law”
15th Amendment
African American males can vote.
16th Amendment
Congress may levy income tax.
17th Amendment
Direct election of US Senators.
18th Amendment
19th Amendment
Women Suffrage
20th Amendment
21st Amendment
Repeal of prohibition
22nd Amendment
President can only serve two terms.
23rd Amendment
District of Columbia residents can vote for president.
24th Amendment
Prohibits poll taxes
25th Amendment
How president turns duties over to V.P. due to illness.
26th Amendment
Lowers voting age to 18
27th Amendment
Congress cannot accept a pay raise until next term.
Article I
Creates the two parts of Congress. They are responsible for making laws.
Commerce Clause
Necessary and Proper Clause (Elastic Clause)
Article II
Creates the job of President, called the Executive. Responsible for enforcing the laws.
Treaty Clause
Article III
Establishes Judges, called the Judiciary. They decide if a law is allowable, or if it goes against the Constitution.
Article IV
States’ Rights
Full Faith and Credit Clause
Privileges and Immunities Clause
Article V
How to change the Constitution.
Article VI
Concerns the United States.
Supremacy Clause
Article VII
Explained how the Constitution was agreed to.
Declarations of Independence – 1776
John Locke
Natural Rights - life, liberty and property
Consent of the governed – The idea that government derives its authority by sanction of the people
Limited government – Restrictions on government to protect natural rights
Articles of Confederation 1781-1787
Nat. government could not levy taxes from states
No national army
No control over trade
No supremacy clause
No Supreme Court or Executive
Amendments required unanimous vote
Pass national laws – 9/13 vote
Established a Post Office
Constitutional Convention – Summer 1787
Aborted Annapolis Meeting – September 1786
Only five states showed up
Thomas Hobbes – Man’s natural state was war. A strong leader was needed.
Connecticut Compromise
Virginia Plan - Representation based on population
New Jersey Plan – Representation is equal
Slaves are 3/5 man and states decide qualifications for voting.
Madisonian Model
Voters voted for the House, Electoral College and state legislatures. The electoral college voted