1. Ad hominem – an attack by character or name 2. A fortiori – use of an argument that asserts that if something less likely is true, then something more likely is bound to be true. Similarly, if something difficult is accomplished, something easy will be accomplished. 3. Anadiplosis – the repetition of the last word (or phrase) from the previous line, clause, or sentence at the beginning of the next. Often combined with climax. 4. Anaphora – repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of a successive clauses, sentences, or lines. 5. Anastrophe – departure from normal word order for the sake of emphasis. 6. Aporia – deliberating with oneself as though in doubt over some matter; asking oneself (or rhetorically asking ones hearers) what is the best or appropriate way to approach something. 7. Apostrophe – turning ones speech from one audience to another. Most often, apostrophe occurs when one addresses oneself to an abstraction, to inanimate object, or to the absent. 8. Asyndeton – the omission of conjunctions between clauses, often resulting in a hurried rhythm or vehement effect. 9. Assonance – repetition of similar vowel sounds, preceded and followed by different consonants, in the stressed syllables of adjacent words. 10. Chiasmus – repetition of ideas in inverted order. Repetition of grammatical structures in inverted order (not to be mistaken with antimetabole, in which identical words are repeated and inverted) also known as ANISTROPHE. 11. Circumlocution – as the name implies, “talking around” something, usually by supplying a descriptive phrase in place of a name (=PERIPHRASIS) 12. Cliché – a phrase, expression, or idea that have been overused to the point it loses its force. 13. Commonplace/meme – a viewpoint that your audience holds in place (already believes in). 14. Concessio – conceding an argument, either jestingly and contemptuously, or to prove a more important point. A synonym for paromologia. 15. Dialogismus – speaking as someone else, either to bring in others points of view into ones own speech, or to conduct a pseudo-dialog through taking up an opposing position with oneself. 16. Dialysis – the speaker/writer seeks to force the audience into an either/or choice. 17. Diazeugma – the figure by which a single subject governs several verbs or verbal constructions (usually arranged in parallel fashion and expressing a similar idea); the opposite of zeugma. 18. Dubitation – feigned doubt about ones ability to speak well. A PERSONAL FORM OF APORIA. 19. Enargia – generic name for a group of figures aiming at vivid, lively description. 20. Enthymeme – the informal method of reasoning typical of rhetorical discourse. The enthymeme is sometimes defined as a “truncated syllogism” since either the major or minor premise found in that more formal method of reasoning is left implied. The enthymeme typically occurs as a conclusion coupled with a reason. 21. Epistrophe – ending a series of lines, phrases, clauses, or sentences with the same word or words. 22. Eqizeuxis – repetition of words with no others between, for vehemence or emphasis. 23. Equivocation – the use of equivocal or ambiguous expression, esp. in order to mislead or hedge; prevarication. 24. Hypophora – a rhetorical question that is immediately answered. 25. Jargon – terminology that relates to a specific activity, profession, or group. 26. Jeremiad – a prophecy of doom. 27. Jingoism – extreme patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy. 28. Litotes – deliberate understatement, especially when expressing a thought by denying its opposite. 29. Meiosis – reference to something with a name disproportionately lesser than its nature (a kind of LIOTES) 30. Metastasis – denying and turning back
AP English Language and Composition
February 3, 2015
What Do You Really Get From Standardized Tests?
The world today revolves around the level of education a person receives. So most people have to go to college if they want to get a decent paying job. However, what is most troubling is how students are selected to be accepted into a college or university. Most college’s selection process is based on how well a student does on the SAT or ACT, standardized tests. Are these…
McGrawHill Chapter 1 Critical thinking, reading, and writing
● Most college work still requires an ability to understand and reflect intelligently on
written texts, and subsequently, to respond in writing to them.
the quality or fact of being greater in number, quantity, or importance.
Learning the tools of critical reading and writing not only teaches you the “what” of an
issue, but also helps you think about and respond intelligently to the relative strength of the…