April 15 2013
Theories of motivation:
- Incentive Theory of Motivation (All of us) - Some behaviors are pushed by desires, instead of needs - Certain stimuli are associated with rewards and punishments; we tend to go towards rewards -Behavioral learning concepts such as association and reinforcement play an important role in this theory of motivation.
-Arousal theory - People take certain actions to either decrease or increase levels of arousal. - When levels get too low, for example, someone may go for a jog
-When levels get too high, on the other hand, a person would probably look for ways to relax such as meditating or reading a book. -Humans are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal during activities
-Humanistic Theory of Motivation - Maslow’s hierarchy of needs predicts which needs we will be motivated to satisfy first Picture of Hierarchy http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologytopics/tp/theories-of-motivation.htm Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivation Drive
- Extrinsic motivation comes from external rewards for accomplishing a task
- Intrinsic motivation comes from internal satisfaction or enjoyment
- Intrinsic motivation is more powerful because we internally enjoy the task, more likely to perform better than external motivation
-Extrinsic motivators are affected for short period of time
Theories of Emotion:
- Physiological - Based on physical arousal of emotion, such as increased heart rate/respiration by fear or excitement.
- Expressing emotion nonverbally (gestures, body language and expressions).
-Thoughts and values determine type of emotion.
James-Lange Theory of Emotion: An event causes physical arousal first and then we interpret this arousal. Only after our interpretation of the arousal do we experience emotion.
Event - Arousal - Interpretation - Emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion: We experience physiological