Questions On Memory

Submitted By Raechel-Paterson
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Pages: 4

Chapter 7: Cognition Section 1
EQ: What is memory? -Memory = system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information
-Human memory is COGNITIVE.

The process by which information is processed by storing and using the memory is called information processing model.
1. Encoding
~the first thing memory does it encodes the incoming sensory info
+requires that you select some stimulus from among the vast array of inputs
~Second it identifies the distincting features
~Third = you mentally label an experience making it meaningful

Memories for concepts= elaboration and negative reinforcement
-In elaboration, it needs to establish a usable memory during this stage, connects a new concept with existing info.
- Negative reinforcements are used for pain
Elaboration = same process that Piaget called assimilation.

2. Storage ~ Involves retention of encoded material ~ have a few seconds before info is lost

3. Retrieval
~ does not always go well b/c the human memory sometimes makes errors, distorts info, or even fails

Technical term for “photographic memory” is eidetic imagery= clear & persistent form of memory that is quite rare
- Appears commonly in children but rarely in adults (IBO tribe living in rural villages)
- 5% of children show some eidetic abilities
-disappearance is related to children’s’ development of formal operational thinking which is abt age 11 or 12
- A connection b/t decline of eidetic and the develop of language skills
-loss of eidetic ability may result from a conflict b/t language skills and visual imagery

We form memories by taking in stimuli
To become a permanent memory it must go through 3 stages 1. Sensory Memory
Typically holds sights, sounds, smells, textures, & other sensory impressions for only a fraction of a second

* There are separate sensory register for each sense each holding a different kind of sensory info -Visual stimulation Iconic Memory -Auditory Stim Echoic -Tactile stimulus (Touch) Tactile Working Mem LTM -Olfactory (Smell) Olfactory sen mem -Gustatory stimuli gustatory sen mem
Echoic memory like iconic memory holds more info than it can pass on into working mem
Sensory images have no meaning to them
Job of sensory mem is to store the images briefly 2. Working Memory
Known as short-term memory
Takes info selectively & connects w/ info in long- term memory
Built to hold info for only a few seconds ex/ phone #
Preserves recently perceived events or experiences for > than a min w/o rehearsal Job is to add meaning to sensation
Kinda like a “central processing chip”
Also acts as a go-b/t for other components of mem
“bottleneck” of the memory system (1) Central executive –directs attention to material retrieved from LTM
(2)Phonological loop- temp stores sounds
(3) Sketchpad- to store & manipulate visual images

-Chunking helps with working memory b/c it has a pattern to it & it adds meaning
- can be a single letter or number, a name, or even a concept
Another way to help memorize information is to rehearse it
*technique is called maintenance rehearsal (maintains info temporarily in working mem)
- NOT an efficient way to transfer information into LTM
A Better strategy to memorize information is elaborative rehearsal= which info is actively reviewed and related to infor already in LTM

Acoustic encoding: Phonological loop(uses temporal lobes)= the conversion of information, especially semantic info, to sound patterns in working memory- advantage is that it plays a role in learning and using language

Visual & spatial encoding: The sketchpad=encodes visual images and mental representations of objects in space. Sketchpad involves the coordination of several brain systems including the frontal & occipital lobes

Levels of Processing in Working Memory- proposed by Fergus Craik & Robert Lockhart deeper processing establishes more meaningful & memorable information