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collective unconscious: Carl Jung's concept of a shared,
inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.
collectivism: giving priority to goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly. 3.
over their environment rather than feeling helpless.
defense mechanisms: in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's
denial: psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people
ego: the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
fixation: (1) the inability to see a problem from a new
forces beyond your personal control determine your fate. perspective, by employing a different mental set. (2) according to
Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved.
Oedipus: complex according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
reaction formation: psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
reciprocal determinism: the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment.
regression: psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated.
repression: in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
Rorschach inkblot test: the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
rationalization: psychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.
internal locus of control: the perception that you control your own fate.
individualism: giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
psychosexual stages: the childhood stages of development
(oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to
Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
identification: the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos. 13.
id: a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to
Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. psychoanalysis: Freud's theory of personality and therapeutic technique that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences—and the therapist's interpretations of them—released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
free association: in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.…