Add your own definitions and examples or references, as are appropriate, to the following vocabulary. (Please note: These lists may be collected on a random basis for credit.)

Vocabulary Term

Definition, Examples, References

table a set of data arranged in rows and columns

表格

68-95-99.7 Rule

In statistics, the 68–95–99.7 rule, also known as the three-sigma rule or empirical rule, states that nearly all values lie within three standard deviations of the mean in a normal distribution. 68.27% of the values lie within one standard deviation of the mean. Similarly, 95.45% of the values lie within two standard deviations of the mean. Nearly all (99.73%) of the values lie within three standard deviations of the mean.

7-11-13 Rule

Acceptance sampling a statistical procedure for accepting or rejecting a batch of merchandise or documents; involves determining the maximum number of defects discovered in a sample before the entire batch is rejected 验收抽样

Addition rule for disjoint events

If A and B are disjoint events, then

P (A È B) = P(A) + P(B)

Addition rule for unions

Algebraic properties of logarithms

a. loga(xy) = logax + logay b. loga(x/y) = logax - logay c. loga(xr) = r logax

d. logaa = 1 loga1 = 0 e. loga(1/x) = − logax

f. logax = log x / log a = lnx / ln a

Alternative hypothesis (Ha) the hypothesis that given data do not conform with a given null hypothesis: the null hypothesis is accepted only if its probability exceeds a predetermined significance level

备择假设

Anonymity

An example: Suppose that only Alice, Bob, and Carol have the keys to a bank safe and that, one day, the contents of the safe are missing (without the lock being violated). Without any additional information, we do not know for sure whether it was Alice, Bob or Carol who opened the safe; the perpetrator remains anonymous. In particular, each of the elements in {Alice, Bob, Carol} has a 1/3 chance of being the perpetrator. However, as long as none of them has been identified as being the perpetrator with 100% certainty, we can say that the perpetrator remains anonymous.

Association any relationship between two measured quantities that renders them statistically dependent The term "association" is closely related to the term "correlation." Both terms imply that two or more variables vary according to some pattern.

Assumptions a statement that is assumed to be true and from which a conclusion can be drawn

假定，设想

Back-to-back stemplot

On a back to back plot, the stem remains the same. But to add another set of data points, we begin adding leaves to the LEFT side.

Balance point of a density curve

Bar chart a chart with bars whose lengths are proportional to quantities

长条图，条形图

Bias an inclination of temperament or outlook to present or hold a partial perspective, often accompanied by a refusal to even consider the possible merits of alternative points of view

乖离率

Biased statistic

Binomial coefficient

Binomial coefficients are a family of positive integers that occur as coefficients in the binomial theorem. They are indexed by two nonnegative integers; the binomial coefficient indexed by n and k is usually written…

二项式系数

Binomial distribution the discrete probability distribution of the number of successes in a sequence of nondependent yes/no experiments, each of which yields success with probability p the probability of an event is defined by its binomial distribution

二项分布

Binomial distribution assumptions

Binomial probability

Binomial random variable

Binomial setting

二项分配设定

Bivariate data (x, y) data involving two random variables, such as height and weight, or amount of smoking and measure of health; often graphed in a scatter plot

双变量数据

Blinding

Block a grouping of experimental units thought to be related to the response to the treatment

区组

Block design procedure by which experimental units are put into homogeneous groups in an attempt to…