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Serena Feliciano 1/17/15
Mr. Vogel A.P. U. S History
Chapter 16
Great American Desert: term used in the 19th century to describe the western part of the Great Plains east of the Rocky Mountains in North America.
Chinese Exclusion Act: law signed by president Chester A. Arthur that was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers.
Cattle Drivers: this was an economic activity in the west, when 20 million cattle were herded from Texas to railheads in Kansa so they can be shipped to stockyards in Chicago and some locations in the east.
Cowboys: animal herders who care for cattle in ranches.
Barbed Wire: type of steel fencing wire used to construct inexpensive fences.
F.J. Turner: American historian who wrote the Frontier Thesis.
Frontier Thesis: Frederick Jackson turner argued that the moving western frontier shaped American democracy and the American character from the colonial era until 1890.
Crazy Horse: a Native American war leader of the Oglala Lakota who took up arms against the United States Federal government to fight against encroachments on the territories and the way of life for is people.
Sitting Bull: was a Hunkpapa Lakota holy man who led his people as a tribal chef during years of resistance to American government policies.
Ghost Dance: religious movement incorporated into Native American belief systems.
Wounded Knee: a brief fight between the Native American Lakota people and the US army at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota on December 29, 1890.
Tuskegee Institute: black educational institution founded by Booker T. Washington to provide training in agriculture and crafts.
G.W. Carver: attacked Booker T. Washington because Washington condemned the black race to manual labor and perpetual inferiority. Aside from that, he also created the NAACP.
Jim Crow Laws: segregation laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965.
Plessy V. Ferguson: Separate but equal doctrine was created; race-based segregation is constitutional.
Grandfather Clause: a clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors has voted before 1867.
B.T. Washington: African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African Americans better themselves individually to achieve equality.
National Grange Movement: organized by Oliver H. Kelly primarily as a social and educational organization for farmers and their families. Later on, Granger organized economic ventures and took political action to defend members against the middlemen and railroads.
Interstate Commerce Act: an act that required railroad rates to be reasonable and just.
Farmer’s Alliances: organization that rallied behind political reforms to solve southern farmers’ economic problems.

I. The West: Settlement of the Last Frontier
a. The mining frontier
California gold rush 1848/Pike’s Peak 1859
Gold/silver strikes in Colorado, Nevada, Idaho, Arizona, etc.
Place mining was used as a way to look for traces of gold in mountain streams, using simple tools like shovels and washing pans.
Impact on economics and politics of the country; increased crisis over value of gold/silver; left environmental scars; negative effect on Native Americans.
b. The cattle frontier
Construction of railroads into Kansas after Civil War opened up eastern markets for the Texas cattle.
Joseph G. McCoy, realizing profits to be made with cattle, built the first stockyards to ship out cattle to Chicago.
Came to an end when overgrazing destroyed grass and blizzards killed many cattle.
c. The farming frontier
Homestead Act 1862—encouraged farming on the Great Plains by offering 160 acres of public land free to any family that settled on it for five years.
­­­­extremes of hot and cold weather made land problematic