ap world Essay

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Unit III Study Guide

The World Shrinks, 1450-1750

Chapter 16 – The World Economy

1. Regions involved in the global network before and after 1450

2. Dominant world culture after 1450

3. Pioneering nations in exploration

4. The Columbian Exchange and its impacts

5. Understand the policies of mercantilism

6. Trade relations between Eastern and Western Europe

• Before 1450 Central Asia, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe were

involved in global trading, but as the world shrunk, the Americas, Africa,

all of Europe, and Southern Asia.

• Slowly, the culture of Western Europe replaced or destroyed cultures in

the Americas, India, Africa, and later, China

• In early years, China was the pioneering nation in the field of exploration,

but after the burning of the Chinese fleets by the Emperor, China slowly

withdrew from the global market.

• Western Europe, especially the nations of Portugal, Spain, and later

Britain, finally went around the Cape of Good Hope and crossed the

Atlantic Ocean, becoming the world leaders in exploration and naval


• The Columbian Exchange was the transfer of products between the New

World of North and South America, and the Old World of Europe, Asia,

and Africa.

• The Old World got crops such as potatoes and corn.

• The New world got horses, diseases, and cows.

• People were also traded between the nations.

• The New World lost most of its population because of the diseases, while

the Old World gained a huge profit.

• Mercantilism encouraged Mother countries such as Britain to import raw

materials from their colonies, make goods from these materials, then sell

the goods back to the same colonies.

• Countries such as Britain, France, and Spain benefited greatly from this


• The colonies would not be allowed to trade with any other countries for

any goods.

• Trade relations between Eastern and Western Europe were severely

stunted because of the Mongol invasion of Russia and other countries in

North-Eastern Europe.

• These countries also did not experience the Renaissance or the

Enlightenment because of their separation from Italy.

• They did participate in the Reformation and most of Eastern Europe is

Eastern Orthodox.

7. Christian conversions in Asia

• The Roman Catholic Church tried to convert multiple societies and

peoples to their religion but failed because of the already well established

religions of Islam and Buddhism.

• The only real success in Asia was in the Philippines, where Christianity is

still the main religion now.

Chapter 17 - The Transformation of the West, 1450-1750

8. Differences between the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance

9. Lutheran appeal to the common people

10. Western view of the importance of science

11. Basic principles of the Enlightenment

• The Italian Renaissance concentrated more on Architecture, Art, and


• Although the Northern Renaissance also made improvements in these

areas, it focused more on Religious and Political reform.

• The Lutheran, Protestant, and Calvinist churches, as well as the

Parliamentary Monarchy were formed during the Northern Renaissance

• Lutheranism made it easier for Christians to get into heaven.

• Unlike with Catholicism, Lutherans supposedly can get into heaven just

by believing Christ was your savior.

• Catholics have to pray and be good to other people while believing Christ

was your savior.

• Slowly, Science beat back the old beliefs and ways of earlier Europe,

including the belief in healers, witchcraft, and magicians.

• New scientific schools and books were set up and printed with

government aid to try to educate people.

• The literacy rate in Europe went up from about 20 percent to 47 in just a

few hundred years.

• Witchcraft trials were not…