AP World Essay

Submitted By ml1999
Words: 1125
Pages: 5

The Byzantine Empire and the Islamic Caliphates arose respectively during the post-classical era (500-1450) and both empires shared similarities and differences. The Islamic Caliphates were influenced by the teachings of Muhammad and the Byzantine was influenced by Christianity. Christianity became an official religion in the Byzantine, likewise, Islam also became a religion in the Caliphates. Furthermore, they are both monotheistic and were lead by religious and political leader. Both empire also faced the issue of splitting. Despite the similarities in the Islamic Caliphates and the Byzantine Empire, laws in both empires are different. Religion was an important inspect to both the societies and the empires. Both empires were lead by supreme religious and political leader. Emperor in the Byzantine and the Caliph in the Caliphates both were the head of religious figures, which means they both had large control over the affairs of the church. Religion in both empires are monotheistic, emperor was believed to be the living representation of Christ and Muslims believed there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah. Like Christianity, Islam also believed in evil spirits, angels, devil, and the last judgment. Both empires are similar in believed only in one god and one religion. Additionally, both also faced split up in religion. In the Byzantine Empire, Roman Catholic Church split up with Eastern Orthodox Church in 1054, this split was known as the Great Schism. The reasons that caused the split were that Western Church wanted looser state control and the west and east developed different rituals. In the western, prayers used unleavened bread to worship, however, prayers used wheat bread in the eastern. Priest can't get marry in western but in eastern, priest is free to marry. In the Islamic Caliphates, Sunni and Shi'a split up due to dissension or disagreement on who should be the next Caliph (leader of Muslims) after the death of Muhammad. Sunni believed Abu Bakr, a companion of Muhammad, should be the new Caliph. On the other hand, Shi'a believed Ali, cousin and son in law of Muhammad, should be the next Caliph. Both empires are similar in split of religion. Though having similarities with the role of religion in governance and how religion split up, the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic Caliphates differ in term of laws. Since the Byzantine was initially the eastern half of the Roman Empire, their laws were founded upon the Roman principles. The emperor followed Roman laws and emulated Roman. They didn’t see themselves as a new empire but a continuation of Rome. In the Caliphates, Islamic law was sharia law. People paid zakat, followed ideas of Islamic punishment and the laws were basically the Quran's laws. Taxes on the non-Muslims were implemented to promote Islam. Religious laws governed in the Islamic Caliphates while the Byzantine laws were influenced by Roman laws.

Yi ping Xie 11/18/14
Period 9 AP World The French Revolution began in 1789 and ended in the late 1790s. During this period, many political, social, and economic factors in France contributed to the discontent felt by many people, especially those of the third estate. Factors such as high taxes, gaps between social classes and absolute monarchy and lack of rights lead to the Revolution. During the eighteen century, France suffered under an absolute monarchy and people were denied basic rights. Document 5, written by Arthur Young, stated that the issue of bankruptcy and whether it would cause a civil war. Young is politically commentating on what he, as a third person, sees happening in France. Documents 8 and 18 showed that the third estate proclaimed equality and liberty. Men were equal and should had power and more rights. Document 11 portrayed the third estate were formally opposing Louis XVI and stubborn in that they were unwilling to back down. It also show that the third estate had