AP World Packet Ch 1-2 Essay example

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Chapters 1 and 2
Key Terms:
1. Megalith- a large stone that is usually used to construct a building or monument; can be alone or with other stones
2. Holocene- geological epoch that dates back from around 9000 b.c.e. to the present
3. Agricultural Revolution- A period in time where the main food source came from personal production of resources; hunting and gathering became obsolete in a way, but was still around and did not disappear
4. Forager- a hunter/gatherer of food and/or other provisions
5. Neolithic- later part of the stone age where stone instruments prevailed in the area of agriculture as opposed to hunting and gathering
6. Paleolithic- earlier era of the stone age, which was about 10000 years ago, when stone instruments were mainly used as weapons for hunting
7. Stone Age- period of time dating back around 2 million years ago where stone tools, along with bone/wood/etc., were beginning to be used by early humans
8. History- the study of human affairs from past events
9. Culture- manifestations of human intellect regarded collectively
10. Civilization- most advanced stage of human social development and organization
11. Babylon- ancient city in Mesopotamia; capital of babylonia in the 2nd millennium b.c.; located on the banks of the tigres and Euphrates river
12. Sumerians- ancient civilization that lived on the banks of the tigres and Euphrates
13. Semitic- relating/denoting languages such as Hebrew, Arabic, and Aramaic
14. City-State- a state consisting of a sovereign city
15. Hammurabi- 6th king of Babylonia (1st dynasty); reigned from 1792-50 bc
16. Scribe- a person who copies documents onto stone tablets
17. Ziggurat- rectangular stepped tower usually surmounted by a temple
18. Amulet- ornament/small piece of jewelry believed to prevent disease/evil/danger
19. Cuneiform- ancient writing form used by people in the Mesopotamia consisting of wedge based characters
20. Pharaoh- ruler in ancient Egypt that was revered as a god on earth
21. Ma’at- divinely authorized order of the universe
22. Pyramid- square or triangular based monument with sloping slides usually denoting a certain ruler of Egypt’s reign
23. Memphis- a capital of Egypt during the time period known as “Old Kingdom”; located on the Lower Nile near the apex
24. Thebes- Farther to the south of Memphis, another central positioned capital during the “Middle” and “New” kingdom periods
25. Hieroglyphics- picture symbols standing for words, it was one of the first forms of written language
26. Papyrus- a writing material made from the reed of the same name; it was made by lying down the reed and pounding it with a mallet
27. Mummy- preserved corpse that has been embalmed, has had the organs removed, and is wrapped in linen
28. Harappa- one of two great cities from the civilization of Indus Valley from 2600-1900 b.c.e.
29. Mohenjo-daro- another of the two cities from Indus Valley

30. Since the dawn of civilization, there has been what we call hunter-gatherers. Back then it was much easier and simpler to just eat stuff from the ground and hunt the big game. Not a whole lot has changed. About 10,000 years ago, going out to get these supplies was no longer the smartest idea. People had learned to cultivate these things domestically. The reason? Really huge climate changes. Nowadays, the farming business is huge. A company runs a whole specific food item from, cows/chickens/fish/etc. (meat or dairy), to corn/potatoes/beans/etc. (ground things). Hunter-gatherers still exist, but only in regions where domesticated cultivation is not an option.

31. Some civilizations were given some pretty big handicaps. Egypt and its desserts for example. It was so hot and dry, the only good place for people to live be oasis and on the river. These conditions could lead to people wanting to explain why it is. These would be anything from creation stories to explaining why the sun sets and rises. These stories can lead to religion, and religion