APES Ch 11 12 13 16 Study Guide Essay

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Chapter 16-- Mining
1. mineral: elements or compounds of elements that occur naturally in
Earth’s crust; have precise chemical compositions; metallic or nonmetallic ore: a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a particular mineral to be profitably mined and extracted; high/low-grade ores
2. electrostatic precipitators…
3. Hydrothermal process: involve water that was heated deep in Earth’s crust; water seeps through cracks and dissolves certain minerals in the rocks; minerals are then carried along in the hot water solution; dissolving ability is greater if chlorine or fluorine is present bc they react with many elements that are soluble in water; when the hot solution encounters sulfur, chemical reaction creates metal sulfides which are not soluble in water so they form deposits by settling out of the solution; hydrothermal solutions are responsible for deposits of minerals such as
Gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead.
Sedimentation: during water transport, some dissolve in water; later settle out of the solution, when warm water of river meets cold water of ocean, settling occurs bc less material dissolves in cold water than in warm water; sedimentation has formed important deposits of iron, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, copper, and other materials
4. Spoil Bank: hill of loose rock created when the overburden from a new trench is put into the already excavated trench during strip mining
5. Environmental impacts of mining FRQ:
6. General Mining Law:
An Act to promote the Development of the Mining
Resources of the United States.
7. How we find new minerals on the planet...geological reports
8. Surface Mining: mineral and energy resources are extracted near Earth’s surface by removing soil, subsoil, or over and overlying rock strata; more common bc less expensive; involves more environmental damage; 2 kinds-- open pit and strip
Subsurface Mining: mineral and energy resources are extracted from deep underground deposits; more expensive; more dangerous for workers; less environmental damage; 2 kinds-- shaft mine and slope mine

Chapter 11--Fossil Fuels
1. Scrubbers remove sulfur from entering the atmosphere by removing sulfur from coal

2. goal of developing countries is to improve standard of living=economic development=rise in per capita energy consumption; human population continues to increase, usually and most occurs in developing countries
3. jhghg
4. Synfuel
: A liquid or gaseous fuel that is synthesized from coal and other naturally occurring sources; used in place of oil or natural gas
5. Diff types of coal: Lignite-- soft coal; soft woody texture; electric power plants; produces little heat when compared
grade intermediate between lignite and bituminous; relatively low heat value and sulfur content; coal-fired electric plants; sulfur content is low!
soft coal; most common type; harder than L and S; much contains sulfur; electric power plants bc produces a lot of heat
Anthracite or Hard Coal-- highest grade of coal; exposed to extremely high temperatures during formation; burns most cleanly; low sulfur; highest heat-producing capacity; all depleted
6. 300 million years ago; climate was mild; vast swamps covered much of the land; dead plant material decayed slowly in the swamp environment=coal; combustible deposits in the earth’s crust; over time, layers of sediment accumulated over the dead plant material; non renewable resource
7. …
8. How fossil fuels are formed…#6
9. Petrochemicals
: oil is used to produce pc; compounds in such diverse products as fertilizers, plastics, paints, pesticides, medicines, and synthetic fibers 10.
: a system approach; natural gas is used to produce both electricity and steam; the heat of the exhaust gases provides the energy to make steam for water and space or industrial heating; cogeneration systems that use natural gas provide relatively clean and efficient electricity 11.most abundant: coal will run