Robbins S. & T. Judge (2011). Organizational Behavior. (15th ed.). Boston: Prentice Hall.
The purpose of the appendix is to increase our awareness as a consumer of behavioral research. This will allow us to better appreciate the information and conclusions presented in our textbook and in research journals. The subject of organizational behavior is composed of a large number of theories that are research based. Research studies become theories, and theories are proposed and followed by research studies designed to validate them. The concepts that make up OB, therefore, are only as valid as the research that supports them.
Purpose of Research
Research is concerned with the systematic gathering of information. Its purpose is to help us in our search for the truth. Organizational behavior research concentrates in how individuals or group of people behave in any organizational context. Research is a dynamic discipline. We need to keep updated in the latest research on organizational behavior.
Variable: Any general characteristic that can be measured and that change in amplitude and intensity or both. Examples are job satisfaction, work stress, ability, etc.
Hypothesis: A tentative explanation of the relationship between two or more variables is called a hypothesis.
Dependent Variable: A dependent variable is a response that is affected by an in-dependent variable. In terms of the hypothesis, it is the variable that the researcher is interested in explaining. Examples of dependable variable are productivity, absenteeism, turnover, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.
Independent Variable: An independent variable is the presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable. Common independent variables studied by OB researchers include intelligence, personality, job satisfaction, experience, motivation and others
Moderating Variable: A moderating variable abates the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. It’s also referred as the contingency variable: If X (independent variable), then Y (dependent variable) will occur, but only under conditions Z (moderating variable).
Causality: A hypothesis, by definition, implies a relationship. That is, it implies a presumed cause and effect. This direction of cause and effect is called causality. Changes in the independent variable are assumed to cause changes in the dependent variable.
Correlation Coefficient: it’s one thing to know that there is a relationship between two or more variables. It's another to know the strength of that relationship. The term correlation coefficient is used to indicate that strength, and is expressed as a number between -1.00 and +1.00. A perfect positive correlation relationship is when two variables vary directly with one another, if one increases the other increases too. A perfect positive correlation relationship is when they vary inversely, one increases as the other decreases. If the two variables vary independently of each other, we say that the correlation between them is zero. A correlation coefficient measures only the strength of association between two variables. A high value does not imply causality.
Theory: Theory describes a set of systematically interrelated concepts or hypotheses that purports to explain and predict phenomena. In OB, theories are also frequently referred to as models.
In evaluating any research study, you need to ask three questions:
a. Is it valid? Validity is when the study measures what it claims to be measuring.
b. Is it reliable"? Reliability refers to consistency of measurement.
c. Is it generalizable? Generalization or generalizability is when the results of a research can be apply to groups of individuals other than those who participated in the original study
Case study: Drawn from real-life situations, case studies present an in-depth