Appendix D Hum/ 176 Week7 Essay

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Associate Level Material

Appendix D

Assumptions and Fallacies

Write a 150- to 200-word response to each of the following questions:

What are assumptions? How do you think assumptions might interfere with critical thinking? What might you do to avoid making assumptions in your thinking?

At first glance, assumptions may not seem like they belong in the critical thinking process. However, your assumptions are a key factor because they give you quite a bit to think critically about! In your critical thinking, you need to take any assumptions you have and question them as you try to substantiate them or unsubstantiated them. With critical thinking and assumptions, it's also important to understand what an inference is and how it relates to the entire process. Inference: A conclusion you come to in your mind based on something else that is true or you believe to be true Assumption: Part of your belief system. Something you don't question. Your mind takes for granted that your assumption is true Your beliefs (assumptions) cause you to come to conclusions (inferences). Your inferences then cause you to act accordingly. Ex. If I walk toward you with my hand out and smiling, you'll probably infer that I intend to shake your hand. Your assumption of my intent is based on similar experiences from your past. Those past events formed your belief about such situations.

What are fallacies? How are fallacies used in written, oral, and visual arguments? What might you do to avoid fallacies in your thinking?

Fallacies are defined as a mistaken belief and based on an illogical argument. A fallacy is simply a flaw in logic, where the argument (or answer or result) given does not match the evidence as set out. In logic and rhetoric, a fallacy is