Communication is defined by de Valenzuela as “any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that person's needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or nonlinguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.” (p.2)
Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. Contents * 1 Human communication * 1.1 Nonverbal communication * 1.2 Oral communication * 1.3 Business communication * 1.4 Written communication and its historical development * 1.5 Effective communication * 1.6 Barriers to effective human communication * 1.6.1 Physical barriers * 1.6.2 System design * 1.6.3 Attitudinal barriers * 1.6.4 Ambiguity of words/phrases * 1.6.5 Individual linguistic ability * 1.6.6 Physiological barriers * 1.6.7 Presentation of information * 2 Nonhuman communication * 2.1 Animal communication * 2.2 Plants and fungi * 2.3 Bacteria quorum sensing * 3 Communication cycle * 4 Communication noise * 4.1 Environmental noise * 4.2 Physiological-impairment noise * 4.3 Semantic noise * 4.4 Syntactical noise * 4.5 Organizational noise * 4.6 Cultural noise * 4.7 Psychological noise * 5 Communication as academic discipline * 6 See also * 7 References |
Main article: Human communication | It has been suggested that Anthroposemiotics be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Proposed since August 2012. |
Human spoken and pictoral languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" also refers to common properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them. Languages seem to share certain properties although many of these include exceptions. There is no defined line between a language and a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages. Communication is the flow or exchange of information within people or group of people.
A variety of verbal and non-verbal means of communicating exists such as body language, eye contact, sign language, haptic communication, chronemics, and media such as pictures, graphics, sound, and writing.
Manipulative Communications was studied and reported by Bryenton in 2011. These are intentional and unintentional ways of manipulating words, gestures, etc. to "get what we want", by demeaning, discounting, attacking or ignoring instead of respectful interaction. Sarcasm, criticism, rudeness and swearing are examples.
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities also defines the communication to include the display of text, Braille, tactile communication, large print, accessible multimedia, as well as written and plain language, human-reader, augmentative and alternative modes, means and formats of