Approaches to Public Health Essay

Submitted By bryanric
Words: 2128
Pages: 9

Within England there have been numerous strategy’s, programmes and policies that have been put in place to tackle teenage pregnancy, actions such as the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (1999) and the Department of Health’s white paper, Choosing Health (2004) have been used to bring attention to the rising rates of teenage pregnancy. This assignment will continue to apply the related health policies available for teenagers who fall pregnant, while exploring the arrangement of a health promotion intervention and how it may be instituted using a theoretical approach and model to underpin the intervention.
Health promotion is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013) as being ‘The process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health’ this definition refers to the process of applying educational and entitlement to change an individual’s health. Preferred comprehensions of the strategies for health promotion have been referenced by Mcdonald (2002) who highlights the three strategies’ composed for health promotions. The strategies are enabling, advocacy and mediating, each strategy is reinforced by five priority actions. Health promotion is described by Tones (1985) as being an ‘activity designed to foster health’ this is supported by Kahan (1998) who stresses the importance of health promotions and the possible effect they can have on an individual.
The intervention presented in the assignment proposes to promote sexual awareness. The intervention will take place in the form of an after school gathering for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 18. The highest teenage pregnancy rates are recorded between 16 and 18 year olds according to the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy Review (2010). Teenagers from low socio economic back grounds will also be targeted. Studies have shown that early sexual education can increase an individuals knowledge of reproduction and contraception, this is confirmed by Dawson (1998) who states ‘Typically students who take sex education courses report more tolerant attitudes towards their sexual behaviour and the sexual behaviour of others’ Dawson (1998) also reports that ‘several investigations have demonstrated a positive relationship between early sexual education and various methods of contraceptive use’ this is confirmed by Marsiglio et al (1996) who states ‘Teenagers exposed to earlier sexual education are less likely to be sexually active’ although the statement has been challenged on multiple occasions due to a lack of supportive evidence. The session is specifically targeted towards both male and female young adults to emphasis the responsibility of contraception methods and sexual awareness for both genders. It has been highlighted that young people may not possess the choice to be educated on sexual awareness due to religious beliefs or other factors, to address this issue parents and care providers will be provided with sex education resources such as booklets, leaflets and fact sheets allowing the parent or care provider to relay the correct information when they deem necessary.
The core component in the health promotion is education. The after school sessions are structured to promote sexual awareness, contraceptive methods and issues concerning the rising rate in teenage pregnancy rates through education. The aim is to educate at risk 15 to 18 year olds on contraceptive techniques as well as helping them understand any factors that influence teenage pregnancy, thus helping the young adults to make educated decisions regarding their sexual health. The after school sessions will find connections between the young adults attitude and behaviour towards sex education and their health, this is supported by Wills and Naidoo (2008) who state that ‘education is the key to enabling people to change their behaviour’ Wills and Naidoo (2008) also go on to suggest that by finding a connection between the individuals behaviour and health will encourage the recipients of the