Aps Study Guide Unit 1 Essay

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APS Study Notes- Unit One

What are the social sciences? * Subjects that use research and analysis to examine human behaviour.

What techniques do social scientists use to examine human behaviour? * Collecting and analyzing statistics, conducting experiments and examining what people have written and created

Why are the social sciences important? * For improving quality of life and making informed decisions about social justice issues

Define Culture * The abilities, ideas and behaviour people have acquired to become members of society

Define Anthropology. * The study of the lives and cultures of human beings, alive or dead

What do anthropologists study? * Physical Anthropology: Study of human evolution, human biology and other primates * Cultural Anthropology (Archaeology and Ethnographers): The investigation of the origin, development and functioning of human cultures

What are the subfields of cultural anthropology? * Linguistics: How language is linked to culture, the structure of language and the connections among language, the brain and cultural behaviour. * Archaeology: Study artifacts such as weapons, clothing, cooking utensils etc. to see how humans used to live.

What are the subfields of physical anthropology? * Biological Anthropology: How diseases and illnesses are genetically transmitted and how they are caused by environmental and social conditions * Primatology: The think and communication patterns of primates from our distinct evolutionary past.

What is forensic anthropology? * Discovery of clues in physical injuries, the wear on bones or teeth, the chemical composition of bones or teeth. * Analysis of DNA to establish the familial identity of a dead person

What is an example of something a forensic anthropologist would study? * Murders from the past

Who are ethnographers? * Focus on cultures that still exist. They become a part of the culture they study, learn the language and customs and observe and record their findings.

What is archaeology? * Study of material evidence, such as buildings and tools remaining from past life and culture.

What is an example of something that would be studied in cultural anthropology? * Marriage ceremonies

What was Darwin’s theory? * He believed that overtime changes occurred in climate and other environmental conditions that resulted in species that could adapt to these changes (survival of the fittest)

What was Mendel’s experiment and what did he conclude from this experiment? * He started to cross breed plants and noticed that one flower’s dominant unit dictated the colour, and the next generation of plants contained features of the first generation plants. If his theories of heredity are correct that would explain how we have evolved over time.

Describe the findings of Jaque Boucher de Perthes? * Discovered stones that were not shaped naturally but appeared to have been shaped into tools or weapons. This indicated that humanity once made primitive tools.

Describe the theory of Carl Linnaeus? * He was Christian and believed in divine creation; god’s creation was perfect and could not change or evolve.

What did Raymond Dart discover and why is it important? * He discovered a fossil from over 2000 years ago that proved humans have evolved.

What are some research methods for anthropologists? * Observation: Observe people in native environments * Field Work: Study artifacts and human construction * Forensics: Analysis of DNA, study of teeth and bones

Define psychology. * The scientific study of behaviours and mental processes of humans or animals (how the brain works)

What do psychologists study? * Biological, psychoanalytic, behavioural, cognitive, humanistic, evolutionary and sociocultural psychology.

What are some research methods for psychologists? * Case Studies: Focus on past studies or events *