· Battle of Acoma- Fought between Spaniards under Don Juan de Oñate and the Pueblo Indians in present-day New Mexico. Spaniards brutally crushed the Pueblo people and established the territory as New Mexico in 1609.
· Black Legend- False notion that Spanish conquerors di little but butcher the Indians and steal their gold in the name of Christ
· Cahokia (c. 1100 A.D.)- Mississippi settlement near present-day East St. Louis, home to as many as 25,00 Native Americans.
· Canadian Shield- First part of the North American land-mass to emerge above sea level.
· Capitalism- Economic system characterized by private property, generally free trade, and open and accessible markets. European colonization of the Americas, and in particular, the discovery of vast bullion deposits, helped bring about Europe's transition to capitalism.
· Caravel- Small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. Caravels could sail more closely into the wind, allowing European sailors to explore the Western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey
· Columbian exchange- The transfer of goods, crops, and diseases between New and Old World societies after 1492.
· Conquistadores- Sixteenth-century Spaniards who fanned out across the Americas, from Colorado to Argentina, eventually conquering the Aztec and Incan empires
· Encomienda- Spanish government's policy to "commend," or give Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to Christianize them. Part of a broader Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland.
· Incas- Highly advanced South American civilization that occupied present-day Peru until it was conquered by Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532. The Incas developed sophisticated techniques, such as terrace farming, in order to sustain large complex societies in the unforgiving Andes Mountains.
· Mestizos- People of mixed Indian and European heritage, notably in Mexico.
· Middlemen- In trading systems, those dealers who operate between the original producers of goods and the retail