Political Realignments in the 1890s
Dylan Flock, Alex Falk, Michael Fawley,
Politics of Stalemate
politics very popular in early 19th century white males made up the bulk of the electorate
1870’s and 80’s dominated by Civil War generation states in Northeast mostly voted Republican states in South mostly voted Democrat
Experiments in the States
● bureaus and commissions established to regulate the new industrial society.
● Illinois had one of the most thoroughgoing provisions.
● Congress passed Interstate Commerce Commission to investigate and oversee railroad activities.
● Congress passed Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act over Hayes veto. ● Congress pass Pendleton Act to reform civil service
● Republicans accused Grover Cleveland of undermining American industries Republicans in Power The Billion-Dollar Congress
● Election of 1888 was the most sweeping victory for either party in twenty years.
● Republicans became majority party in the country Tariffs, Trusts, and Silver
● Passed McKinley Tariff Act which raised tariff duties by 4 percent.
● Both parties agreed to pass the Sherman Antitrust Act. This act regulated bug business.
● Sherman Silver Purchase Act tried to end the troublesome problem presented by silver.
● the south and west supported silver coinage
● Treasury bought 4.5 million ounces of silver a month.
● The House passed a federal election bill to protect black voting rights. The 1890 Elections
● The Republican Congress of 1890 was one of the most important Congresses.
● passed a record number of significant laws
● 1890 elections crushed Republicans.
The Rise of the Populist Movement
Farmers began to move due to election of 1890.
Summer of 1890- Wagon loads of families met and conversed about common problems
National Farmer’s Alliance and Industrial Union promised unified action to solve agricultural problems.
Farmers complained about declining prices for their products, rising railroad rates for shipping, and burdensome mortgages.
Depending on the location of the farm, different problems occurred.
Farmers became “hayseeds” because in the late 1800’s, people were becoming more excited about factories, not farms.
The Fast-Growing Farmers’ Alliance
National Farmers’ Alliance - Plains west of Mississippi - aka Northwestern
Alliance. Formed in 1880, disagreed with Southerners’ emphasis on secrecy and separate organizations for blacks. Leonidas L. Polk was the president. Farmers’ alliance and Industrial Union - based in south - aka Southern
Alliance. Dr. Charles W. Macune took leadership in 1886. Welcomed farmers’, country doctors, school teachers, preachers, and mechanics.
Excluded lawyers, bankers, cotton merchants, and warehouse operators.
Farmers’ alliance adopted the Ocala Demands which became the main platform. Called for creation of sub-treasury to allow farmers to store crops, free coinage of silver, end protective tariffs, a federal income tax, and the direct election of senators by voters.
The People’s Party
People’s (Populist) Party formed in 1892 by a convention in Omaha,
Some southerners worked to unite black and white farmers.
Some southern democrats used fraud, intimidation, and manipulation to hold Populists’