1800- Thomas Jefferson elected president
He emphasized national unity and equality (for white males) and individual freedoms. Also wanted limited government that fostered his ideas.
He was a Democratic-Republican
Republicanism- a complex changing body of ideas values and assumptions that developed in the U.S. in 1790s and 1800s around Thomas Jefferson and James madison’s political organizing and their campaigns for presidency.
Federalists Versus Democratic-Republicans Page 229
What Jefferson did as President: Jefferson shrank federal bureaucracy, almost doubled landmass of U.S., made cuts to army, Founded West Point Military Academy, He kept Hamilton’s economic plan (though he didn’t like it), he kept tariffs but abolished all international taxes, (power to the states) small federal government.
Tariff- Tax on imports into any nation
Agrarian Ideal, Jefferson’s idea of a nation of independent farmers
**Alexander Hamilton was killed by Aaron Burr in a duel also Andrew Jackson was in a duel and got shot but he survived. Violence due to the consumption of alcohol**
Jefferson the Individual,
Insisted on simplified scene at white house even though his life in Monticello was elaborate (many Slaves)
Lived and aristocratic life while defending republican equality.
Richmond record- James Calendar, once ally turned enemy after he reported that Jefferson had relationship with slave Sally Hemings. ITS TRUE!
1803- U.S. Supreme Court’s Marbury v. Madison decision
Midnight Judges- the name Jeffersonian Democratic Republicans gave to those judges appointed by the outgoing Federalist president John Adams.
Judiciary Act 1801- expanded the # of federal judges (it was repealed)
Marbury V. Madison, William Marbury was appointed Justice of the peace but before commissioned Adams left office. President Jefferson and Madison refused to give Marbury job. Supreme court led by John Marshall led decision. Result Marbury didn’t get job, and Judiciary act considered unconstitutional so Jefferson won.
Marbury v. Madison supreme court decision of 1803 that created the precedent of judicial review by ruling part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional.
Judicial Review- A power implied in the constitution that gives federal courts the right to review and determine the constitutionality of acts passed by congress and state legislatures.
8.1 Question: Explain how Jefferson’s republicanism shaped and reflected the nation’s democratic culture. Democracy is: power to the people, rests upon the principles of majority rule and individual rights, it guards against all powerful central governments, prime function to protect basic human rights such as freedom of speech, religion ect… conduct free and fair voting. Jefferson through Republicanism emphasized national unity and equality (for white males) and individual freedoms. Eventually property qualifications for voting vanished helping more to vote because of republicanism. In addition in 8.2, wall of separation between Church and state, democracy because freedom of religion.
Wall of Separation between Church and State, phrase said by Thomas Jefferson to make clear his belief that the First Amendment to the Constitution guaranteed that governments should no interfere with the work of churches and churches should not interfere with or expect support from government ***ASPECT OF REPUBLICANISM****
Religious establishment, The name given to a state-church or to the creation of an “established church” that might play a role in and expect support and loyalty from all citizens.
So when bill of rights was added it only applied to federal government states could do as they please Jefferson sought to change church state relationships and he did.
Example: Connecticut required all citizens to pay for Baptist Church (same as New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Maryland required support for Episcopal Church.
State versus Church Battle: Connecticut Timothy Dwight, firm federalist, wanted state church,