AP US History B (6)
3 February 2015
APUSH UNIT 10 STUDYGUIDE
1. “Rule of Reason” Anti-Trust laws
In 1911, the Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of the mighty Standard Oil Company, which occurred since it went against the Sherman Anti-Trust act. Court also handed its famous “rule of reason “doctrine where combinations that “unreasonably held trade” were illegal. This caused a huge amount of Ant-Trust laws to be passed. One, which in 1911 took the US Steel Corporation down.
2. 17th Amendment
A constitutional amendment to bring about the popular election of senators was having a tough time, since the senators were happy with the existing methods. However when a large number of people expressed their preferences of the senate, the local legislatures followed the voice of the people. Thus the seventeenth amendment for direct election of senators was passed.
3. Panic of 1907
Roosevelt faced a small setback in 1907 with a panic which frightened “runs” on banks. This was called Roosevelt’s panic, which was rebuked by Roosevelt, who said it was caused by “certain malefactors of great wealth. In 1908 congress passed the Aldrich-Vreeland Act which allowed national banks to issue emergency currency with collateral when needed. Paved the way for the Federal Reserve Act of 1913
4. The Jungle
This book was written by Upton Sinclair and it talked in noxious detail about the filth, disease and putrefaction in Chicago’s damp ill ventilated slaughterhouses. Once Roosevelt read this book, he passed the Meat Inspection Act, which required food to have a government label to be exported. Roosevelt also passed the pure food and Drug act of 1906 with this.
5. Muller v. Oregon
In this case Louis D Brandeis persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women from the factories. His reason was that women had weaker bodies so they needed to be protected. Though it was discriminatory toward women, who could no longer get male jobs, it was able to shut down the female activism and gave employers total control over the workplace. Women protection became larger than women suffrage for men.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union, whose founder was Frances E Willard, was the largest women organization in the world. Found an ally in the Ant Saloon League. Together they were able to pass the eighteenth amendment which outlawed drinking.
7. 19th late century social critics
They were called Muckrakers by President Roosevelt. They dug deep to find the dirt the public loved to hate. They wrote many magazines like McClure’s, Everybody’s, Cosmopolitan, and Collier’s. Lincoln unmasked the corrupt alliance between big businesses and government. Ida Tarbell published a devastating story about the Standard Oil Company. They sought to cleanse capitalism and believed the cure to democracy was democracy.
8. TR’s Square Deal
TR demanded a “Square Deal” for the capital, labor and the public. This Deal was tested when some 14000 workers who suffered a lot decided to rebel for a nine hour working day and a 20 percent increase in pay. Roosevelt fixed this by giving the miners a 9hr working day and a 10% increase in pay. Due to this the Department of Commerce and labor was created. Additionally the Bureau of Commerce was created to break the stranglehold of monopolies
9. Impact of the Triangle Shirtwaist fire
The Triangle Shirtwaist fire which occurred in New York and killed 146 workers, had a big impact on the women who forced the New York Legislature to pass stronger Laws regulating the hours and conditions of the sweatshop toll. By 1917 thirty states put worker’s compensation laws and gradually it became the employer’s responsibility to take care of his/her workers
10. Contrast the progressivism of TR vs. Taft
TR was a severe progressivist and he was firm and very strict with congress. Therefore all of his laws had to be passed. However Taft was a milder progressivist who was very lenient on congress.