In America, through the Civil Rights Act in 1964 to the Civil Rights Act of 1991 a series of legal development formed a relatively against gender discrimination legal system. And In Japan, there is also specialized employment for men and women equal opportunity law and other laws. However, Hodges(2009) remind “Women are still over-represented among the poor, gender wage gaps persisted, and women remained disproportionately represented in low-paying unskilled jobs.” And in the informal economy, workers were unprotected and vulnerable. And this discrimination can be proved on the gap of wage and the female share of job.
In the United States, the gender pay gap is measured as the ratio of female to male median yearly earnings among full-time, year-round (FTYR) workers. Summary a report from Robot(2009) that The female-to-male earnings ratio was 0.77 in 2009, meaning that, in 2009, female FTYR workers earned 77% as much as male FTYR workers. Women's median yearly earnings relative to men's rose rapidly from 1980 to 1990 from 60.2% to 71.6%, and less rapidly from 1990 to 2000 from 71.6% to 73.7% and from 2000 to 2009 from 73.7% to 77.0%.
The gender pay gap has been attributed to differences in personal and workplace characteristics between women and men education, hours worked, occupation etc. as well as direct and indirect discrimination in the labour market gender stereotypes, customer and employer bias .
The estimates for the discriminatory component of the gender pay gap include 5%and 7%: and in at least one study grow as men and women's careers progress. Summary the report of US government (2009) that hundreds of studies have consistently found unexplained pay differences which potentially include discrimination. Another criticized these studies as insufficiently controlled, and opined that men and women would have equal pay if they made the same choices and had the same experience, education, etc. Other studies have found direct evidence of discrimination.
The Women’s Bureau of the Ministry of Labor has reported that "the equality of men and women has not been fully achieved in practice, for the traditional concept that the woman is to stay at home is still deeply rooted. (Sylvia A., 2011)” Sylvia A. (2011) argues that Women workers account for only 39.5 per cent of all paid employees in Japan. Only 50 per cent of Japanese women are economically active compared to 77.76 per cent of men. More than one-third of all women workers are part-time and women constitute 67 per cent of the…