Knowledge and WisdomLogic & Critical Thinking
Philo/sophy - Love and Wisdom.
Wisdom = Intellectual and Moral Excellence. Love = Agapy.
Subfields Of Philosophy
Chapter 1 Review.
Where does The universe come from? Cosmological question.
Hesiod- Theo/gony" 750-700b.c
Gia- Mother earth.
Eros- Sexual Love/Lust
Ouranos- Sky God
Kronos- Son of Gia and Ouranos.
A) Metaphor, analogy
B) Animistic forces in nature.
C) Polythesism- Believes in more than one Gods. Act as personified forced of nature.
Thales ---> 626-545B.C. Believes water basic to human life. air, fire, earth. Water is always an eternal element
A) Rationa Argument
B) Natural Cause - (Not Divine)
C) Natural Elements behavior---> Water -->Air.
Democritus (460-370 B.C.)
Atoms - No perceptual qualities. No experience of Atoms. Cannot be destroyed of created.
Physical Properties atom have----> 1) Motions, 2) Position, 3) Weight, 4) Differ in shapes.
Reality------> Atoms-->The void. Wood--->Ash--->Appearances--->Sense--->Eyes
Dalton, Rutherford 1897 (British Scienctists).
Summary for Class.
1) Gods - do not cause changes in the world. All Pheno are changed by rational causes.
2) Determinism - There is a reason for everything that happens. Natural causes.
3) Nature - is uniform and therefore predictably.
4) Nature - is transparent to human Reason- we can know reality.
5) Nature - is regulated by a rational lawfulness
1) Epistemology = The theory of knowledge. (Facts and Knowing)
a) What is the origin of knowledge? b) What standard do we use to distinguish between opinion and knowledge?
c) What is the truth?
2) Metaphysics = The fundamental nature of reality. (More Spiritual)
a) What is reality made of?
b) Does God Exist?
c) Do we have a soul?
3) Ethics = Standards we use to distinguish between right and wrong. ex Good/Evil. (Morals and Ethics)
4) Aesthetics = The study of beauty. Natural and Art.
5) Social and political philosophy -----> Power, Strength and weaknesses of different types of societies.
Archetype -----> Basic image that represents our conception of the essence of a certain type of person; some of these images have been shared by the whole human race from the earliest times.
Philosophical archetype----> is a philosopher who expresses an original or influential point of view in a way that significantly affects subsequent philosophers and non-philosophers.
Skeptics ------> believe that any claim to knowledge must be personally verified by their own sensory experience.
Utilitarians----> believe that pain is inherently bad, that pleasure is inherently good, and that all creatures strive to be as happy as possible. Relativism ----> is the belief that knowledge is determined by specific qualities of the observer. In other words, absolute (universal) knowledge of the truth is impossible—one opinion is as good as another.
Wisdom----> Fundamental understanding of reality as it relates to living a good life; reasonable and practical, focusing on the true circumstances and character of each individual; good judgment about complex situations involving reflection, insight, and a plausible conception of the human condition.
knowledge (theoretical)-----> The accurate compilation and assessment of factual and systematic relationships.
knowledge (practical)-----> The skills needed to do things like play the piano, use a band saw, remove a tumor, or bake a cake.
Belief-----> Conviction or trust that a claim is true; an individual’s subjective mental state; distinct from knowledge.
Ethnocentrism----->From Greek roots meaning “the race is the center”; belief that the