Megalith: (From Greek megas = large, lithos = stone.) The gigantic stones used in prehistoric architecture “megalithic structures.”
Monolith: (From the Greek monos = one, lithos = stone.) A large, single, free-standing stone set vertically. Columns and oblisks which are carved from a single stone are “monolithic”
Post and lintel: An architectural structure consisting of two upright vertical members (posts), topped by a horizontal beam (lintel).
Relief sculpture: sculpture that is raised from the surface from which it is carved, but still attached to it.
Canopic jar: A vessel in which the ancient Egyptians preserved the internal organs of the dead.
Capital: The decorative top of a column, pilaster, or pier.
Engaged column: A column-like, nonfunctional form projecting from a wall and articulating it visually.
Groundline: A line used in paintings and reliefs to indicate the level of the ground upon which figures are placed. Groundlines can be smooth horizontal lines on the picture plane or can undulate to indicate topography. They can be placed diagonally on the picture plane to suggest height, while several groundlines placed at various spots on the picture plane might indicate depth. The ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians used groundlines in these ways in their paintings and reliefs.
Hieratic: Ancient Egyptian form of writing developed from hieroglyphics. The pictographs of hieroglyphic writing are dispensed with in hieratic script, thus creating a form of writing that is fast…