Iron Age: the period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron.
Geometric Style; a phase of Greek art, characterised largely by geometric motifs in vase painting, that flourished towards the end of the Greek Dark Ages, circa 900 BC to 700 BC. Its centre was in Athens, and it was diffused amongst the trading cities of the Aegean
Orientalizing Style; The period is characterized by a shift from the prevailing Geometric style to a style with different sensibilities, which were inspired by the East.
Archaic Style:The termini of the Archaic period are defined as the "structural revolution", meaning a sudden upsurge of population and material goods that occurred c. 750 BC, and the "intellectual revolution" of classical Greece. The end of archaism is conventionally marked by Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 BC.
Zeus; rules the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father rules the family according to theancient Greek religion. He is the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology.
Athena; goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, just warfare, mathematics, strength, strategy, the arts, crafts, and skill.
Herakles; Steal the apples of the Hesperides (He had the help of Atlas to pick them after Hercules had slain Ladon).
Hermes; Hermes is a god of transitions and boundaries. He is quick and cunning, and moved freely between the worlds of the mortal and divine, as emissary and messenger of the gods, intercessor between mortals and the divine, and conductor of souls into the afterlife.
Dionysus; the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness andecstasy in Greek mythology.
Apollo; The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more.
Medusa; a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as having the face of a hideous human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair. Gazing directly upon her would turn onlookers to stone.
Perseus; founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty of Danaans, was the first of the heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths of the Twelve Olympians. Perseus beheaded the Gorgon Medusa, and saved Andromeda from the sea monster Cetus.
Nike;a goddess who personified victory, also known as the Winged Goddess of Victory.
kouros; meaning (male) youth, was first proposed for what were previously thought to be depictions of Apollo by V. I. Leonardos in 1895 in relation to the youth from Keratea, and adopted by Lechat as a generic term for the standing male figure in 1904. kore; equivalent to a male kouros. They both show the restrained "archaic smile", but — unlike the nude kouroi — korai are depicted in thick drapery, ornate and (in painted examples) very colorful and often have elaborate braided hairstyles. Parthenon in 1886 and called "the Korai of Acropolis". peplos; a body-length garment established as typical attire for women in ancient Greece by 500 BC (the Classical period). polis (mean: city-state); a political entity ruled by its body of citizens. archaic smile: their subject was alive, and infused with a sense of well-being.
“Catastrophy” in the Aegean:
Theories Evidence Effects
Us vs. Them: Manufacturing Communities on Mainland Greece
Darwinian/Evolutionary Theory; Johannes Winkelmann Archaic to Classical Greece
Cyrus; the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia
Xerxes; the fourth king of the kings of Achaemenid Empire.
Ionian Revolt; The cities of Ionia had been conquered by Persia, the ionians then revolted
Marathon; Greeks win