Artery is an elastic blood vessel that transports blood away from the heart. This blood is normally oxygenated and goes to all other tissues and organs. There are two main types of arteries: Pulmonary arteries and systemic arteries. Pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs where the blood picks up oxygen. The oxygen rich blood is then returned to the heart via the pulmonary veins. Systemic arteries deliver blood to the rest of the body. The Aorta is the main systemic artery and the largest artery of the body. It originates from the heart and branches out into smaller arteries which supply blood to the head region/Brachiocephalic, the heart itself (coronary arteries) and the lower regions arteries of the body. The smallest arteries are called arterioles and passed through microcirculation and the circulation of blood from arterioles to capillaries to venules (smallest vein).
There are some of the diseases and disorders that can affect the arteries such as Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD), Coronary Artery Disease (CHD), Atherosclerosis, clotting disorder, etc. Peripheral Artery Disease is a common circulatory problem in which narrowed arteries reduced blood flow to your limbs. However, Coronary Artery Disease is a narrowing of small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. As majorities between these two diseases are similar, they also shared much common etiology. These diseases are caused by atherosclerosis disorder in which fatty deposits (plaques) build up in the artery walls and reduce blood flow. There are various factors that lead to these diseases such as smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, insulin resistance, age, and heredity. In addition, Peripheral Artery Disease also has some less common cause like blood vessel inflammation, injure to the limbs, unusual anatomy of the ligament and muscle, or radiation exposure. In the Coronary Artery Disease, as the plaques buildup in the arteries, they’re narrow down the blood flow to your heart. Eventually, the decreased blood flow may cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or other Coronary diseases and symptoms. A complete blockage can cause a heart attack. Once the inner wall of an artery is damaged, fatty deposits made of cholesterols and other cellular waste products tend to accumulate at the sight of injury also known as “atherosclerosis”. If the surface of these plaques break or rupture, platelets will clump at site to try to repair the artery. This can block the artery, lead to a heart attack.
There is no transplant to these arteries like other organs. However, treatments are possibility. The precise treatments for blocked arteries depend on the degree of blockage, severity of symptoms, location of blockage, age, and medical history of the patients. For mild to moderate symptoms, nonsurgical treatments are advised, which include the use of blood thinning agents like Aspirin to decrease clot formation, Thrombolytic drugs to dissolve blood clot, Vasodilators that help to widen the arteries and reduce blood pressure, drugs to lower cholesterol levels, Analgesics to reduce pain. Invasive and surgical treatment is advised in case of severe blockage and ischemia. Techniques like angioplasty, atherectomy and endarterectomy employ mechanical methods to widen the arteries or remove plaque. Bypass surgeries for arteries involve the rerouting of blood flow by using grafts. The exact method to be used depends on the location and degree of blockage, as well as the accessibility of the blocked artery. Most artery disease do not require surgeon. Bypass surgery is usually reserved for patients with severe blockages in two or more arteries. Patients with narrowing in only one artery are usually treated with balloon angioplasty or stents. During this procedure, a catheter (thin tube) with a balloon at the tip is inserted into a blocked artery. The balloon is then inflated, which pushes…